2. Related Work: Academic and Commercial Systems for Vineyard Monitoring
3. Epidemiological Models for Preventing Downy Mildew
3.1. Rule 3-10
3.2. EPI Model
3.3. DMCast Model
3.4. UCSC Model
3.5. Model Comparison
4. VineSens Design
4.1. Functionality of the System
- It keeps a record of the main parameters that affect the development of the vine, being able to consult them through the Internet by using a wide range of devices.
- It assists in preventing diseases through predictive models, obtaining ad-hoc alerts from the farm. Specifically, a software algorithm based on the Rule 3-10 was devised and implemented. The algorithm automates the detection of both primary and secondary downy mildew infections and sends alerts to the users. Such an algorithm is hosted on a central server that once a day checks the status of the infection using the environmental parameters collected from the nodes. Then, the Rule 3-10 index is calculated according to Table 1. When the accumulated index value exceeds a threshold (e.g., 80%), an alert is sent to the user. A complete flow diagram of the algorithm that illustrates its inner workings and complexity is depicted in Figure 1.
- It helps to reduce and prevent environmental pollution, rationalizing the application of treatments to avoid over-treatment and the presence of harmful environmental agents.
4.2. VineSens Architecture
4.2.1. Global Overview
- Communications subsystem. It is responsible for transferring the information collected from the sensor nodes to the management subsystem. Communications are performed through a Representational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API).
- Management subsystem. This subsystem is divided into two parts. On the one hand, it provides a back-end server to manage the data obtained through the communications subsystem. On the other hand, it provides a front-end server to offer access to VineSens to remote users. It also manages a database that stores the collected data and all the necessary data structures of the back-end and the front-end.
4.2.2. Sensor Nodes
4.2.3. Gateway Hardware
Gateway Control Hardware
Communications Subsystem Technology
Gateway Power Subsystem
- A 160 W solar polycrystalline panel with a 12 V output and an internal regulator for the battery. This kind of panel was chosen because it gives a good trade-off between cost, weight, and efficiency.
- A 90 Ah lead-acid battery. This kind of battery would last three successive days without sun, what is considered enough for the place where VineSens was deployed.
- A 300 W power inverter (MJ-300-12, Xunzel, Mendaro, Spain) to convert from 12 V to 220 V. Note that it would be also valid to use a 12 V/5 V DC converter if the Raspberry Pi-based gateway was the only device actually powered, but it was selected the DC/AC inverter to increase the scalability of the system and allow us to add other AC-powered devices easily (like the TP-LINK Wi-Fi router used by the gateway).
4.2.4. Gateway Software
- A REST API that monitors and stores the data collected by the sensor nodes and that acts as a back-end, which has been implemented using Node.js . The back-end could be potentially on the cloud, but it is actually on the Raspberry Pi (i.e., on the crop) to be able to access it from the farm without requiring an Internet access.
- A front-end that allows users to visualize the stored data and notifications through a web application.
- A data validation service and a mechanism for notifying alerts.
- /add/type1/:node. GET and POST requests that are used to manage Type-1 node data. It supports the following key-value pairs:
- temp: temperature.
- hum: relative humidity.
- volt: voltage.
- /add/type2/:node. GET and POST requests. Similar to the previous request, but for Type-2 nodes (it supports the same key-value pairs as the previous Type-1 node request).
- /add/weather-station. GET and POST requests. It is used for storing data related to the weather station. It supports the following key-value pairs:
- rain: accumulated rain in L/.
- wind: wind speed in km/h.
- dirWind: direction of the wind in degrees.
- /nodes/:node. GET request. It allows for obtaining the data of one specific node. It only supports one key-value pair:
- limit: number of results to be shown.
5.1. Sensor Network Deployment
5.2. Data Visualization
5.3. Alert Notifications
- Downy mildew alerts.
- Power alerts. It warns about energy outages on the nodes.
- Ambient temperature alerts.
5.4. Weather Station
5.5. Node Energy Consumption
5.6. Phytosanitary tReatment Use
- Spraying according to phytosanitary warnings. Every week the CSIC (Spanish National Research Council) publishes online recommendations for the vine growers on the treatments to be performed. In particular, the CSIC has control vineyards in an area that is 80 km from the place where VineSens was deployed, so warnings can be considered valid since weather in both areas is similar.
- Traditional spraying. It consists in following the spraying recommendations previously mentioned: farmers have to apply treatments every 12–15 days from April–May and, during the period with the highest risk, they should reduce the spraying period to 5–7 days. In Table 6 and Table 7 two variants of traditional spraying are considered: conservative and relaxed. The conservative approach tends to spray as much as possible according to the traditional schedule, while the relaxed approach tends to spray the least, but respecting CSIC recommendations.
- VineSens recommendations. VineSens algorithms estimate spraying by calculating the downy mildew development index. When such an index is high enough, VineSens sends a warning to the farmer, who sprays and resets the index. Two versions are illustrated to compare with the other systems: a conservative approach that suggests spraying when the downy mildew development index reaches 80 %, and a more relaxed approach that waits until the index is greater than 90 %.
Conflicts of Interest
Application Programming Interface
Spanish National Research Council
Decision Support System
Integrated Development Environment
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
Leaf Area Index
Representational State Transfer
Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems
Wireless Sensor Network
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|Average Temperature (°C)||Daily Development (%) RH < 75%||Daily Development (%) RH ≥ 75%||Average Temperature (°C)||Daily Development (%) RH < 75%||Daily Development (%) RH ≥ 75%|
|Rule 3-10 (Baldacci, 1947)||Empirical||Well-known, simplicity||The model does not take oospore maturing into account and does not distinguish among the different stages of the infection process|
|EPI model (Stryzik, 1983)||Empirical||Good trade-off between complexity and performance||False negatives, it requires the weather record|
|DMCast (Park et al., 1997)||Empirical||Good trade-off between complexity and performance||False negatives|
|UCSC (Rossi et al., 2008)||Mechanistic||It does not require calibration or correction and provides an accurate, detailed, and dynamic simulation of the sexual stage||Very complex|
|Technology||Frequency Band||Data rate||Range||Power||Battery Operation||Nodes|
|Wi-Fi/IEEE 802.11b/g/n [30,56]||2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz||11 - 105 Mbit/s||10-100 m||High||Rechargeable (hours)||32|
|ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 [32,33]||868 MHz, 2.4 GHz||250 kbit/s||10-300 m||Very low||Alkaline (months to years)||65000|
|Bluetooth/IEEE 802.15.1 [57,58]||2.4 GHz||723 kbit/s||10 m||Low||Rechargeable (days to weeks)||8|
|UWB/IEEE 802.15.3a||3.1-10.6 GHz||>110 Mbit/s||4-20 m||Low||Rechargeable (hours to days)||128|
|DASH7/ISO 18000-7 ||433 MHz||27.8 kbit/s||250 m||Very Low||Alkaline (months to years)||Many|
|Z-Wave||900 MHz||40 kbit/s||100 m||Very Low||Alkaline (months to years)||232|
|6LowPAN||2.4 GHz||200 kbit/s||200 m||Very Low||Alkaline (months to years)||100|
|RFID [60,61]||30 KHz-3 GHz||<640 kbit/s||1 cm-10 m||Very Low||Alkaline (months to years)||Many|
|Type 2||SHT11||Transmission||93.5 mA|
|Type 1||DS18B20, DHT22||Transmission||75 mA|
|Node||Total per Hour||Total per Day||Batteries||Estimated Duration (Full Discharge)||Actual Duration|
|Type 2||0.266 mA/h||6.384 mA||2 × 2100 mAh AA batteries in series||328 days||93 days|
|4 × 2100 mAh AA batteries in parallel (2 to 2)||657 days||182 days|
|Type 1||0.214 mA/h||5.143 mA||2 × 2100 mAh AA batteries in series||408 days||93 days|
|4 × 2100 mAh AA batteries in parallel (2 to 2)||816 days||182 days|
|Phytosanitary Warning||Traditional (Conservative)||Traditional (Relaxed)||VineSens (80%)||VineSens (90%)|
|Date||Event||#Dose||Event||#Dose||Event||#Dose||Event||Downy Mildew Index||#Dose||Event||Downy Mildew Index||#Dose|
|03/01/16||Start monitoring.||0||Start monitoring.||0|
|03/28/16||Oosphore maturation detected due to high temperature during winter.||0||0|
|04/01/16||Beginning of the treatment.||1||0||0|
|04/19/16||Detected favorable development conditions.||5.75||Detected favorable development conditions.||5.75|
|04/20/16||First clear symptoms manifested in the farms monitored. Beginning of the treatment recommended.||1||11.05||11.05|
|04/29/16||Cool nights are slowing the development of the disease. Remain vigilant.||16.8||16.8|
|05/01/16||Next dose.||3||Begining of the treatment.||1||16.8||16.8|
|05/06/16||Increased risk of outbreaks due to high nocturnal temperatures and the increase in RH.||2||55.9||55.9|
|05/13/16||Increased risk, but treatment is only needed on vines that show obvious signs.||Optional||55.9||55.9|
|05/15/16||Next dose.||4||Next dose.||2||66.1||66.1|
|05/17/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||81.0||1||81.0|
|05/18/16||Treatment applied.Index reset.||6.2||87.2|
|05/19/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||97.4||1|
|05/20/16||A new dose of the treatment should be applied due to the beginning of the flowering.||3||27.88||Treatment applied. Index reset.||11.48|
|05/27/16||Weather is favoring the development of the disease, but only the vines already infected should be treated.||Optional||79.88||62.98|
|05/28/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||84.63||2||68.23|
|06/01/16||Next dose.||5||Next dose.||3||26.35||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||94.58||2|
|06/03/16||Increased risk of infection. A new dose of the treatment should be applied.||4||49.35||23.0|
|06/07/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||95.15||3||68.8|
|06/09/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||99.5||3|
|06/10/16||High risk of infection. Renew the dose if the treatment was not successful.||Optional||Next dose (high risk).||6||Next dose (high risk).||4||39.0||8.3|
|06/14/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||82.78||4||52.08|
|06/17/16||Numerous farmers have reported damage in their vineyards. Renew the dose.||5||Next dose (high risk).||7||Next dose (high risk).||5||11.45||63.53|
|Phytosanitary Warning||Traditional (Conservative)||Traditional (Relaxed)||VineSens (80%)||VineSens (90%)|
|Date||Event||#Dose||Event||#Dose||Event||#Dose||Event||Downy Mildew Index||#Dose||Event||Downy Mildew Index||#Dose|
|06/20/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||98.43||4|
|06/22/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||88.85||5||42.5|
|06/23/16||The high risk of infection remains. Renew the dose on plants already showing clear damage.||Optional||Next dose (high risk).||8||Next dose (high risk).||6||21.0||63.5|
|06/26/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||91.4||5|
|06/29/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||87.8||6||38.9|
|07/01/16||[Missing report due to the IT problems in the phytosanitary news server]||Next dose (high risk).||9||Next dose (high risk).||7||23.58||62.48|
|07/04/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||104.98||6|
|07/05/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||87.08||7||21.0|
|07/08/16||High risk continuous. Renew the treatment.||6||Next dose (high risk).||10||Next dose (high risk).||8||55.1||76.1|
|07/09/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||93.4||7|
|07/10/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||88.7||8||16.3|
|07/15/16||Optimal infection conditions. Renew the treatment.||7||Next dose (high risk).||11||Next dose (high risk).||9||52.5||68.8|
|07/17/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||103.5||8|
|07/19/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||87.2||9||33.6|
|07/22/16||Slight decrease in risk of infection, but it is still high. Apply only the treatment to infected plants.||Optional||Next dose (high risk).||12||Next dose (high risk).||10||47.0||73.3|
|07/23/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||86.7||10||86.7|
|07/24/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||102.4||9|
|07/29/16||Final dose.||13||Final dose.||11||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||91.7||11||76.0|
|07/30/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||91.3||10|
|07/04/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||85.7||12||70.4|
|08/05/16||The risk remains low. No treatment should be applied except in very specific situations.||13.4||83.8|
|08/06/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 90%.||100.4||11|
|08/10/16||Downy mildew alert: index over 80%.||89.3||13|
|08/12/16||In most areas, bunches are already insensible to the disease. No further actions need to be taken.|
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