An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility
2. Previous Work
Motivation and Contributions
- The holding time of all the potential forwarders is scaled using the neighboring nodes’ energy information. It increases the holding time difference between them even for a small variation in the energy level of neighbors.
- The expanded proximity closeness ratio of the forwarding candidate nodes towards the virtual pipeline between sender and sink is added in holding time computation to signify the node preference.Both (1) and (2) scale and signify the holding time difference between the candidate forwarders for small parameter variance. This ensures that all nodes in the transmission range of the suitable forwarder (with minimum holding time) must receive copy of the packet before their holding time expiration.
- Each candidate forwarder uses its neighboring node information to find suitability to abbreviate its holding time duration to curtail the end-to-end delay.
- Energy efficiency and energy balancing are achieved by employing the normalized residual energy information of the neighboring nodes in the holding time and suppressing more number of packets.
- No constant parameters in the holding time estimation are used.
- The proposed scheme is analyzed in the network scenarios with and without sink mobility.
3. Proposed Scheme
3.1. Problem Statement
- Neighbors of node i, (): All the nodes that are in form which i.
- Potential Forwarding Zone (PFZ): PFZ is the region of between node (that currently forwarded the packet p) and Sink . PFZ is the subregion of of node S and the nodes in the region are called potential forwarder nodes (PFNs), which are preferable to further relay p. Any point in 3D euclidean space is considered to be in the PFZ of S, if it satisfies the following conditions:
3.3. Estimation of
|Algorithm 1: Proposed data Packet Forwarding Algorithm.|
4. Simulation Analysis
4.1. Performance Metrics
- Total forwarded copies of data: represents the number of copies forwarded in the network for all data packet transmissions initiated by the source nodes.
- Number of dead nodes: is the total number of nodes that could not participate in the data forwarding process because they have residual energy less than the transmission energy.
- End-to-end delay: is the cumulative delay experienced by the data packet between its source and the sink node.
- PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio): is the ratio of successfully received data packets by sink over the total number of generated data packets.
- Energy consumption: total energy consumption in the network during the whole simulation time.
- Hop count: represents the average number of hops that the data packets have traversed between source and sink node.
4.2. Simulation Results in the Static Sink Scenario
4.3. Simulation Results in the Mobile Sink Scenario
Conflicts of Interest
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Wadud, Z.; Hussain, S.; Javaid, N.; Bouk, S.H.; Alrajeh, N.; Alabed, M.S.; Guizani, N. An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility. Sensors 2017, 17, 2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102251
Wadud Z, Hussain S, Javaid N, Bouk SH, Alrajeh N, Alabed MS, Guizani N. An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility. Sensors. 2017; 17(10):2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102251Chicago/Turabian Style
Wadud, Zahid, Sajjad Hussain, Nadeem Javaid, Safdar Hussain Bouk, Nabil Alrajeh, Mohamad Souheil Alabed, and Nadra Guizani. 2017. "An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility" Sensors 17, no. 10: 2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102251