Next Article in Journal
Step-Detection and Adaptive Step-Length Estimation for Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning at Various Walking Speeds Using a Smartphone
Next Article in Special Issue
Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors
Previous Article in Journal
A Direct and Non-Singular UKF Approach Using Euler Angle Kinematics for Integrated Navigation Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards a Graphene-Based Low Intensity Photon Counting Photodetector
Open AccessArticle

A 72 × 60 Angle-Sensitive SPAD Imaging Array for Lens-less FLIM

1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
3
Cortera Neurotechnologies, 2150 Shattuck Ave., PH, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edoardo Charbon
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091422
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
We present a 72 × 60, angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) array for lens-less 3D fluorescence lifetime imaging. An A-SPAD pixel consists of (1) a SPAD to provide precise photon arrival time where a time-resolved operation is utilized to avoid stimulus-induced saturation, and (2) integrated diffraction gratings on top of the SPAD to extract incident angles of the incoming light. The combination enables mapping of fluorescent sources with different lifetimes in 3D space down to micrometer scale. Futhermore, the chip presented herein integrates pixel-level counters to reduce output data-rate and to enable a precise timing control. The array is implemented in standard 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and characterized without any post-processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS avalanche photodiodes; highly sensitivity photodetectors; fluorescence imaging; photon timing; rangefinder; single photon detectors; SPAD arrays; time-correlated measurements; 3-D image sensor; lifetime microscopy; low power imaging; point-of-care; lab-on-chip; in-vitro; exponential decay; fill-factor; SPAD; photo-detector CMOS avalanche photodiodes; highly sensitivity photodetectors; fluorescence imaging; photon timing; rangefinder; single photon detectors; SPAD arrays; time-correlated measurements; 3-D image sensor; lifetime microscopy; low power imaging; point-of-care; lab-on-chip; in-vitro; exponential decay; fill-factor; SPAD; photo-detector
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.; Johnson, B.; Jung, T.; Molnar, A. A 72 × 60 Angle-Sensitive SPAD Imaging Array for Lens-less FLIM. Sensors 2016, 16, 1422.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop