Next Article in Journal
Domotics Project Housing Block
Next Article in Special Issue
X-ray Photon Counting and Two-Color X-ray Imaging Using Indirect Detection
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-in Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP
Previous Article in Special Issue
Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 745;

Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors

Integrated Radiation and Image Sensors, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento 38123, Italy
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento 38123, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edoardo Charbon
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3992 KB, uploaded 23 May 2016]   |  


This paper reviews the state of the art of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensors for time-resolved imaging. The focus of the paper is on pixel architectures featuring small pixel size (<25 μm) and high fill factor (>20%) as a key enabling technology for the successful implementation of high spatial resolution SPAD-based image sensors. A summary of the main CMOS SPAD implementations, their characteristics and integration challenges, is provided from the perspective of targeting large pixel arrays, where one of the key drivers is the spatial uniformity. The main analog techniques aimed at time-gated photon counting and photon timestamping suitable for compact and low-power pixels are critically discussed. The main features of these solutions are the adoption of analog counting techniques and time-to-analog conversion, in NMOS-only pixels. Reliable quantum-limited single-photon counting, self-referenced analog-to-digital conversion, time gating down to 0.75 ns and timestamping with 368 ps jitter are achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; time-resolved imaging; time-gating photon counting single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; time-resolved imaging; time-gating photon counting

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perenzoni, M.; Pancheri, L.; Stoppa, D. Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors. Sensors 2016, 16, 745.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top