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Sensors 2016, 16(5), 688;

Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement

SRI-Sarnoff, 4952 Warner Avenue, Suite 300, Huntington Beach, CA 92649, USA
SRI-Sarnoff, 201 Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric R. Fossum
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
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Fundamental limits for photon counting and photon energy measurement are reviewed for CCD and CMOS imagers. The challenges to extend photon counting into the visible/nIR wavelengths and achieve energy measurement in the UV with specific read noise requirements are discussed. Pixel flicker and random telegraph noise sources are highlighted along with various methods used in reducing their contribution on the sensor’s read noise floor. Practical requirements for quantum efficiency, charge collection efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency that interfere with photon counting performance are discussed. Lastly we will review current efforts in reducing flicker noise head-on, in hopes to drive read noise substantially below 1 carrier rms. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultra low noise; CCD; CMOS; imagers ultra low noise; CCD; CMOS; imagers

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Janesick, J.; Tower, J. Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement. Sensors 2016, 16, 688.

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