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Correction published on 20 January 2017, see Sensors 2017, 17(1), 195.

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 743;

Experimental Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-in Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP

School of Information Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, 111 Shenliao West Road, Shenyang 110870, China
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Vision and Systems Laboratory, Laval University, 1065 av. de la Médecine, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Uberlandia, 2121 Av. Joao Naves de Avila, Uberlandia 38400-902, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vincenzo Spagnolo and Dragan Indjin
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared and THz Sensing and Imaging)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4608 KB, uploaded 20 January 2017]   |  


In this article, optical excitation thermographic techniques, including pulsed thermography and lock-in thermography, were used to detect foreign object defect (FOD) and delamination in CFRP. Then, vibrothermography as an ultrasonic excitation technique was used to detect these defects for the comparative purposes. Different image processing methods, including cold image subtraction (CIS), principal component thermography (PCT), thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) and Fourier transform (FT), were performed. Finally, a comparison of optical excitation thermography and vibrothermography was conducted, and a thermographic probability of detection was given. View Full-Text
Keywords: CFRP; FOD; lock-in thermography; pulsed thermography; vibrothermography CFRP; FOD; lock-in thermography; pulsed thermography; vibrothermography

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, B.; Zhang, H.; Fernandes, H.; Maldague, X. Experimental Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-in Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP. Sensors 2016, 16, 743.

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