An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
2. Literature Review
3. Underwater Energy Consumption Model
4. EBET and EEBET: Proposed Techniques
- All sensor nodes are homogeneous with limited battery power and are location-aware using existing positioning method (Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) as location finder , and MoteTrack location identification scheme ). By location aware we mean that each sensor node knows its location.
- The sensor nodes always have data to send.
- The data reporting mechanism is periodic.
- The static sink resides on the surface of water.
4.1. Protocol Operation
|Algorithm 1:: EBET|
|Algorithm 2:: Route establishment in EEBET|
Loop Detection and Elimination
4.2. Throughput Maximization Model
5. Performance Evaluation
5.1. Impact of Varying Network Radius on Network Lifetime
5.2. Impact of Varying Network Radius on Transmission Loss
5.3. Impact of Varying Network Radius on Throughput
5.4. Impact of Varying Number of Nodes and Varying Network Radius on Network Lifetime
5.5. Impact of Varying Number of Nodes and Varying Network Radius on Throughput
Conflicts of Interest
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|BTM ||Balanced energy consumption, Energy efficient||UASNs, 2D underwater terrain monitoring||High energy consumption while transmitting at long distance, Formation of transmission loops||Network lifetime, Balanced energy consumption|
|EBH and DIB ||Energy balancing, Applicable for both shallow and deep water||2D UASNs, Moored monitoring systems, Oceanographic data collection||Inefficient for other than linear networks, Designed only for sparse network||Network lifetime, Balanced energy consumption|
|H2-DAB ||Energy efficient, Dimensional location information is not required||UASNs, Critical underwater monitoring missions||Imbalanced energy consumption, Nearer to sink nodes deplete energy earlier, High end-to-end delay||High data delivery ratio, Network lifetime|
|RAD ||Energy efficient, Acoustic channel utilization efficiency, Introduces forward error correction||3D UASNs, Geographical routing for delay-sensitive and delay-insensitive applications||Imbalanced energy consumption, Increase in packet size increases packet error rate, Solution for concave node (void region) is not provided||Low packet error rate, Minimized energy consumption, Low end-to-end delay|
|ERP2R ||Energy efficient, Physical distance and residual energy based routing||3D UASNs, Underwater monitoring, Location-based routing||Imbalanced energy consumption with the growth of node mobility, Longer routing paths, Duplicate packets transmission||Network lifetime, Minimized end-to-end delay and energy consumption|
|RDBF ||Energy efficient, Minimum hop counts involved, No exchange of control messages||3D UASNs, Underwater monitoring and target tracking applications, Location-based routing||Do not restrict forwarding area for packets, All nodes with same distance with the sink send same packets at the same time||Network lifetime, High packet delivery ratio, Low end-to-end delay|
|DBR ||Full dimensional location information of sensor nodes is not required||UASNs, 3D underwater monitoring, Depth based routing, Handles dynamic networks||High energy consumption, Imbalanced energy consumption, Data redundancy, Inefficient for sparse and highly dense networks||Network lifetime, High data delivery ratio, Low end-to-end delay|
|EEDBR ||Energy efficient, No dimensional location information required, Controlled flooding||UASNs, 3D underwater monitoring and surveillance applications||Imbalanced energy consumption, High energy consumption in dense networks, Low packet delivery ratio, High packet drop rate||Network lifetime, Minimum energy consumption, End-to-end delay|
|UFCA ||Energy efficient, No periodic flooding messages required, Uses Gravity function for data routing||3D-UASNs, Underwater surveillance and monitoring applications, Distributed routing mechanism||Imbalanced energy consumption, Resistant to node mobility, Temporary loss of connectivity, Routing information may not be updated, High end-to-end delay||High packet delivery ratio, Minimized energy consumption, Scalability|
|CDBR/CEEDBR ||Energy efficient, Limited forwarder nodes, Depth-dependent||3D-UASNs, Underwater monitoring and surveillance||Imbalanced energy consumption, High packet drop and end-to-end delay, Static network topology||Network lifetime, Minimized energy consumption|
|0.2 × J/bit|
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Javaid, N.; Shah, M.; Ahmad, A.; Imran, M.; Khan, M.I.; Vasilakos, A.V. An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 487. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040487
Javaid N, Shah M, Ahmad A, Imran M, Khan MI, Vasilakos AV. An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2016; 16(4):487. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040487Chicago/Turabian Style
Javaid, Nadeem, Mehreen Shah, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Imran, Majid Iqbal Khan, and Athanasios V. Vasilakos. 2016. "An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks" Sensors 16, no. 4: 487. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040487