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Open AccessArticle

A Hybrid Sender- and Receiver-Initiated Protocol Scheme in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

by Jae-Won Lee 1 and Ho-Shin Cho 2,*
1
Underwater Communication/Detection Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
2
College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Lindner
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28052-28069; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128052
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Waveguide Sensors)
In this paper, we propose a method for sharing the handshakes of control packets among multiple nodes, which we call a hybrid sender- and receiver-initiated (HSR) protocol scheme. Handshake-sharing can be achieved by inviting neighbors to join the current handshake and by allowing them to send their data packets without requiring extra handshakes. Thus, HSR can reduce the signaling overhead involved in control packet exchanges during handshakes, as well as resolve the spatial unfairness problem between nodes. From an operational perspective, HSR resembles the well-known handshake-sharing scheme referred to as the medium access control (MAC) protocol using reverse opportunistic packet appending (ROPA). However, in ROPA the waiting time is not controllable for the receiver’s neighbors and thus unexpected collisions may occur at the receiver due to hidden neighbors, whereas the proposed scheme allows all nodes to avoid hidden-node-induced collisions according to an elaborately calculated waiting time. Our computer simulations demonstrated that HSR outperforms ROPA with respect to both the throughput and delay by around 9.65% and 11.36%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: handshake-based MAC protocol; handshake-sharing; hidden-node problem; long propagation delay; receiver-initiated protocol; sender-initiated protocol; sensor networks; spatial unfairness problem; underwater acoustics handshake-based MAC protocol; handshake-sharing; hidden-node problem; long propagation delay; receiver-initiated protocol; sender-initiated protocol; sensor networks; spatial unfairness problem; underwater acoustics
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Lee, J.-W.; Cho, H.-S. A Hybrid Sender- and Receiver-Initiated Protocol Scheme in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2015, 15, 28052-28069.

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