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Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors

Sensor Technology and Applications Group (STAG), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
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Sensors 2010, 10(10), 8782-8796; https://doi.org/10.3390/s101008782
Received: 31 July 2010 / Revised: 22 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; electronic tongue; data fusion; PCA; LDA; Orthosiphon stamineus electronic nose; electronic tongue; data fusion; PCA; LDA; Orthosiphon stamineus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zakaria, A.; Shakaff, A.Y.M.; Adom, A.H.; Ahmad, M.; Masnan, M.J.; Aziz, A.H.A.; Fikri, N.A.; Abdullah, A.H.; Kamarudin, L.M. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors. Sensors 2010, 10, 8782-8796. https://doi.org/10.3390/s101008782

AMA Style

Zakaria A, Shakaff AYM, Adom AH, Ahmad M, Masnan MJ, Aziz AHA, Fikri NA, Abdullah AH, Kamarudin LM. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors. Sensors. 2010; 10(10):8782-8796. https://doi.org/10.3390/s101008782

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zakaria, Ammar, Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff, Abdul Hamid Adom, MohdNoor Ahmad, Maz Jamilah Masnan, Abdul Hallis Abdul Aziz, Nazifah Ahmad Fikri, Abu Hassan Abdullah, and Latifah Munirah Kamarudin. 2010. "Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors" Sensors 10, no. 10: 8782-8796. https://doi.org/10.3390/s101008782

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