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Leucokinins: Multifunctional Neuropeptides and Hormones in Insects and Other Invertebrates
 
 
Review

Leucokinin and Associated Neuropeptides Regulate Multiple Aspects of Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila

Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Academic Editor: Erik Johnson
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041940
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropeptides, Receptors, and Behavior)
Leucokinins (LKs) constitute a family of neuropeptides identified in numerous insects and many other invertebrates. LKs act on G-protein-coupled receptors that display only distant relations to other known receptors. In adult Drosophila, 26 neurons/neurosecretory cells of three main types express LK. The four brain interneurons are of two types, and these are implicated in several important functions in the fly’s behavior and physiology, including feeding, sleep–metabolism interactions, state-dependent memory formation, as well as modulation of gustatory sensitivity and nociception. The 22 neurosecretory cells (abdominal LK neurons, ABLKs) of the abdominal neuromeres co-express LK and a diuretic hormone (DH44), and together, these regulate water and ion homeostasis and associated stress as well as food intake. In Drosophila larvae, LK neurons modulate locomotion, escape responses and aspects of ecdysis behavior. A set of lateral neurosecretory cells, ALKs (anterior LK neurons), in the brain express LK in larvae, but inconsistently so in adults. These ALKs co-express three other neuropeptides and regulate water and ion homeostasis, feeding, and drinking, but the specific role of LK is not yet known. This review summarizes Drosophila data on embryonic lineages of LK neurons, functional roles of individual LK neuron types, interactions with other peptidergic systems, and orchestrating functions of LK. View Full-Text
Keywords: diuretic hormone; sleep; feeding; metabolism; ion transport peptide; tachykinin; short neuropeptide F; insulin-like peptide; neuromodulation diuretic hormone; sleep; feeding; metabolism; ion transport peptide; tachykinin; short neuropeptide F; insulin-like peptide; neuromodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nässel, D.R. Leucokinin and Associated Neuropeptides Regulate Multiple Aspects of Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041940

AMA Style

Nässel DR. Leucokinin and Associated Neuropeptides Regulate Multiple Aspects of Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nässel, Dick R. 2021. "Leucokinin and Associated Neuropeptides Regulate Multiple Aspects of Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041940

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