Calprotectin (CLP) is a heterodimer formed by two S-100 calcium-binding cytosolic proteins, S100A8 and S100A9. It is a multifunctional protein expressed mainly by neutrophils and released extracellularly by activated or damaged cells mediating a broad range of physiological and pathological responses. It has been more than 20 years since the implication of S100A8/A9 in the inflammatory process was shown; however, the evaluation of its role in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases or its usefulness as a biomarker for the appropriate diagnosis and prognosis of lung diseases have only gained attention in recent years. This review aimed to provide current knowledge regarding the potential role of CLP in the pathophysiology of lung diseases and describe how this knowledge is, up until now, translated into daily clinical practice. CLP is involved in numerous cellular processes in lung health and disease. In addition to its anti-microbial functions, CLP also serves as a molecule with pro- and anti-tumor properties related to cell survival and growth, angiogenesis, DNA damage response, and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The findings of this review potentially introduce CLP in daily clinical practice within the spectrum of respiratory diseases.
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