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Sexual Dimorphisms, Anti-Hormonal Therapy and Cardiac Arrhythmias

1
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Haut Leveque Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
2
Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Vidant Medical Center/East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
3
APHP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Institute of Cardiology, Centre de Référence des Maladies Cardiaques Héréditaires, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM 1166, Sorbonne Universités, F-75013 Paris, France
4
INSERM, CIC-1901, AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, UNICO-GRECO Cardio-Oncology Program, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Investigation Center, CLIP2 Galilée, Sorbonne Université, F-75013 Paris, France
5
AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, IE3M, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, and Centre de Référence des Pathologies Gynécologiques Rares, Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Sorbonne Université, F-75013 Paris, France
6
Cardio-Oncology Program, Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Antoine Martinez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031464
Received: 2 January 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 2 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Dimorphism in (Non Reproductive) Endocrine Diseases)
Significant variations from the normal QT interval range of 350 to 450 milliseconds (ms) in men and 360 to 460 ms in women increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. This difference in the QT interval between men and women has led to the understanding of the influence of sex hormones on the role of gender-specific channelopathies and development of ventricular arrhythmias. The QT interval, which represents the duration of ventricular repolarization of the heart, can be affected by androgen levels, resulting in a sex-specific predilection for acquired and inherited channelopathies such as acquired long QT syndrome in women and Brugada syndrome and early repolarization syndrome in men. Manipulation of the homeostasis of these sex hormones as either hormonal therapy for certain cancers, recreational therapy or family planning and in transgender treatment has also been shown to affect QT interval duration and increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we highlight the effects of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones in the physiological and pathological states on QTc variation and predisposition to gender-specific pro-arrhythmias. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex; anticancer drugs; atrial fibrillation; QT; ventricular arrhythmias sex; anticancer drugs; atrial fibrillation; QT; ventricular arrhythmias
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grouthier, V.; Moey, M.Y.Y.; Gandjbakhch, E.; Waintraub, X.; Funck-Brentano, C.; Bachelot, A.; Salem, J.-E. Sexual Dimorphisms, Anti-Hormonal Therapy and Cardiac Arrhythmias. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031464

AMA Style

Grouthier V, Moey MYY, Gandjbakhch E, Waintraub X, Funck-Brentano C, Bachelot A, Salem J-E. Sexual Dimorphisms, Anti-Hormonal Therapy and Cardiac Arrhythmias. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grouthier, Virginie, Melissa Y.Y. Moey, Estelle Gandjbakhch, Xavier Waintraub, Christian Funck-Brentano, Anne Bachelot, and Joe-Elie Salem. 2021. "Sexual Dimorphisms, Anti-Hormonal Therapy and Cardiac Arrhythmias" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031464

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