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Review

Critical Role of Estrogens on Bone Homeostasis in Both Male and Female: From Physiology to Medical Implications

1
I2MC, INSERM UMR 1297, University of Toulouse III, F-31000 Toulouse, France
2
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Toulouse III, F-31000 Toulouse, France
3
Menopause and Metabolic Bone Disease Center, Hôpital Paule de Viguier, University Hospital of Toulouse, F-31000 Toulouse, France
4
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Toulouse III, F-31000 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antoine Martinez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041568
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Dimorphism in (Non Reproductive) Endocrine Diseases)
Bone is a multi-skilled tissue, protecting major organs, regulating calcium phosphate balance and producing hormones. Its development during childhood determines height and stature as well as resistance against fracture in advanced age. Estrogens are key regulators of bone turnover in both females and males. These hormones play a major role in longitudinal and width growth throughout puberty as well as in the regulation of bone turnover. In women, estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will summarize the main clinical and experimental studies reporting the effects of estrogens not only in females but also in males, during different life stages. Effects of estrogens on bone involve either Estrogen Receptor (ER)α or ERβ depending on the type of bone (femur, vertebrae, tibia, mandible), the compartment (trabecular or cortical), cell types involved (osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes) and sex. Finally, we will discuss new ongoing strategies to increase the benefit/risk ratio of the hormonal treatment of menopause. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone remodeling; sexual dimorphism; estrogens; estrogen receptor; nuclear effects; ERαMISS bone remodeling; sexual dimorphism; estrogens; estrogen receptor; nuclear effects; ERαMISS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noirrit-Esclassan, E.; Valera, M.-C.; Tremollieres, F.; Arnal, J.-F.; Lenfant, F.; Fontaine, C.; Vinel, A. Critical Role of Estrogens on Bone Homeostasis in Both Male and Female: From Physiology to Medical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041568

AMA Style

Noirrit-Esclassan E, Valera M-C, Tremollieres F, Arnal J-F, Lenfant F, Fontaine C, Vinel A. Critical Role of Estrogens on Bone Homeostasis in Both Male and Female: From Physiology to Medical Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noirrit-Esclassan, Emmanuelle, Marie-Cécile Valera, Florence Tremollieres, Jean-Francois Arnal, Françoise Lenfant, Coralie Fontaine, and Alexia Vinel. 2021. "Critical Role of Estrogens on Bone Homeostasis in Both Male and Female: From Physiology to Medical Implications" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041568

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