Next Article in Journal
Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation Strongly Allied with Genetic Male Sterility Convertible to Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Kenaf
Next Article in Special Issue
Sexual Dimorphisms, Anti-Hormonal Therapy and Cardiac Arrhythmias
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Mechanism of Autosomal Recessive Long QT-Syndrome 1 without Deafness
Review

Escape from X Chromosome Inactivation and the Female Predominance in Autoimmune Diseases

1
Infinity-Toulouse Institute for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases, University of Toulouse, INSERM, CNRS, UPS, 31300 Toulouse, France
2
Arthritis R&D, 92200 Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Antoine Martinez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031114
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Dimorphism in (Non Reproductive) Endocrine Diseases)
Women represent 80% of people affected by autoimmune diseases. Although, many studies have demonstrated a role for sex hormone receptor signaling, particularly estrogens, in the direct regulation of innate and adaptive components of the immune system, recent data suggest that female sex hormones are not the only cause of the female predisposition to autoimmunity. Besides sex steroid hormones, growing evidence points towards the role of X-linked genetic factors. In female mammals, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in a cellular mosaicism, where about one-half of the cells in a given tissue express either the maternal X chromosome or the paternal one. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is however not complete and 15 to 23% of genes from the inactive X chromosome (Xi) escape XCI, thereby contributing to the emergence of a female-specific heterogeneous population of cells with bi-allelic expression of some X-linked genes. Although the direct contribution of this genetic mechanism in the female susceptibility to autoimmunity still remains to be established, the cellular mosaicism resulting from XCI escape is likely to create a unique functional plasticity within female immune cells. Here, we review recent findings identifying key immune related genes that escape XCI and the relationship between gene dosage imbalance and functional responsiveness in female cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmune diseases; sex bias; systemic lupus erythematosus; X chromosome inactivation autoimmune diseases; sex bias; systemic lupus erythematosus; X chromosome inactivation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Youness, A.; Miquel, C.-H.; Guéry, J.-C. Escape from X Chromosome Inactivation and the Female Predominance in Autoimmune Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031114

AMA Style

Youness A, Miquel C-H, Guéry J-C. Escape from X Chromosome Inactivation and the Female Predominance in Autoimmune Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Youness, Ali, Charles-Henry Miquel, and Jean-Charles Guéry. 2021. "Escape from X Chromosome Inactivation and the Female Predominance in Autoimmune Diseases" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031114

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop