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Review

Gut Microbiota as a Mediator of Essential and Toxic Effects of Zinc in the Intestines and Other Tissues

1
Laboratory of Molecular Dietetics, World-Class Research Center, Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare, IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119146 Moscow, Russia
2
Department of Bioelementology, K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management, 109004 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
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Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
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Institute of Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Russian Academy of Sciences, 460000 Orenburg, Russia
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Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores/Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología Molecular y Nanotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City 14269, Mexico
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Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Ear, Throat, Nose and Speech, 190013 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, 195067 St. Petersburg, Russia
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K.A. Raukhfus Children’s City Multidisciplinary Clinical Center for High Medical Technologies, 191036 St. Petersburg, Russia
10
School of Energy and Environment, Thapar Institute Engineering and Technology, Patiala 147004, Punjab, India
11
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
12
Graduate Institute of Metabolism and Obesity Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
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Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems and Agro-technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 460000 Orenburg, Russia
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Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
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Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2380 Brumunddal, Norway
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Laboratory of Ecobiomonitoring and Quality Control, Yaroslavl State University, Sovetskaya Str. 14, 150000 Yaroslavl, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Taiho Kambe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13074; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313074
Received: 15 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 December 2021 / Published: 3 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Trace Elements in Diseases)
The objective of the present study was to review the existing data on the association between Zn status and characteristics of gut microbiota in various organisms and the potential role of Zn-induced microbiota in modulating systemic effects. The existing data demonstrate a tight relationship between Zn metabolism and gut microbiota as demonstrated in Zn deficiency, supplementation, and toxicity studies. Generally, Zn was found to be a significant factor for gut bacteria biodiversity. The effects of physiological and nutritional Zn doses also result in improved gut wall integrity, thus contributing to reduced translocation of bacteria and gut microbiome metabolites into the systemic circulation. In contrast, Zn overexposure induced substantial alterations in gut microbiota. In parallel with intestinal effects, systemic effects of Zn-induced gut microbiota modulation may include systemic inflammation and acute pancreatitis, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as fetal alcohol syndrome and obesity. In view of both Zn and gut microbiota, as well as their interaction in the regulation of the physiological functions of the host organism, addressing these targets through the use of Zn-enriched probiotics may be considered an effective strategy for health management. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; gut microbiota; Escherichia coli; lipopolysaccharide; probiotic zinc; gut microbiota; Escherichia coli; lipopolysaccharide; probiotic
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Skalny, A.V.; Aschner, M.; Lei, X.G.; Gritsenko, V.A.; Santamaria, A.; Alekseenko, S.I.; Prakash, N.T.; Chang, J.-S.; Sizova, E.A.; Chao, J.C.J.; Aaseth, J.; Tinkov, A.A. Gut Microbiota as a Mediator of Essential and Toxic Effects of Zinc in the Intestines and Other Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 13074. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313074

AMA Style

Skalny AV, Aschner M, Lei XG, Gritsenko VA, Santamaria A, Alekseenko SI, Prakash NT, Chang J-S, Sizova EA, Chao JCJ, Aaseth J, Tinkov AA. Gut Microbiota as a Mediator of Essential and Toxic Effects of Zinc in the Intestines and Other Tissues. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):13074. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skalny, Anatoly V., Michael Aschner, Xin G. Lei, Viktor A. Gritsenko, Abel Santamaria, Svetlana I. Alekseenko, Nagaraja T. Prakash, Jung-Su Chang, Elena A. Sizova, Jane C.J. Chao, Jan Aaseth, and Alexey A. Tinkov. 2021. "Gut Microbiota as a Mediator of Essential and Toxic Effects of Zinc in the Intestines and Other Tissues" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 23: 13074. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313074

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