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Coming from the Wild: Multidrug Resistant Opportunistic Pathogens Presenting a Primary, Not Human-Linked, Environmental Habitat

Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Agnieszka E. Laudy and Stefan Tyski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158080
Received: 14 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 24 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem)
The use and misuse of antibiotics have made antibiotic-resistant bacteria widespread nowadays, constituting one of the most relevant challenges for human health at present. Among these bacteria, opportunistic pathogens with an environmental, non-clinical, primary habitat stand as an increasing matter of concern at hospitals. These organisms usually present low susceptibility to antibiotics currently used for therapy. They are also proficient in acquiring increased resistance levels, a situation that limits the therapeutic options for treating the infections they cause. In this article, we analyse the most predominant opportunistic pathogens with an environmental origin, focusing on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance they present. Further, we discuss the functions, beyond antibiotic resistance, that these determinants may have in the natural ecosystems that these bacteria usually colonize. Given the capacity of these organisms for colonizing different habitats, from clinical settings to natural environments, and for infecting different hosts, from plants to humans, deciphering their population structure, their mechanisms of resistance and the role that these mechanisms may play in natural ecosystems is of relevance for understanding the dissemination of antibiotic resistance under a One-Health point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic pathogens; MDR; One-Health; intrinsic resistance; environmental bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Acinetobacter baumannii; Burkholderia cepacia; Shewanella; Aeromonas opportunistic pathogens; MDR; One-Health; intrinsic resistance; environmental bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Acinetobacter baumannii; Burkholderia cepacia; Shewanella; Aeromonas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanz-García, F.; Gil-Gil, T.; Laborda, P.; Ochoa-Sánchez, L.E.; Martínez, J.L.; Hernando-Amado, S. Coming from the Wild: Multidrug Resistant Opportunistic Pathogens Presenting a Primary, Not Human-Linked, Environmental Habitat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158080

AMA Style

Sanz-García F, Gil-Gil T, Laborda P, Ochoa-Sánchez LE, Martínez JL, Hernando-Amado S. Coming from the Wild: Multidrug Resistant Opportunistic Pathogens Presenting a Primary, Not Human-Linked, Environmental Habitat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):8080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanz-García, Fernando, Teresa Gil-Gil, Pablo Laborda, Luz E. Ochoa-Sánchez, José L. Martínez, and Sara Hernando-Amado. 2021. "Coming from the Wild: Multidrug Resistant Opportunistic Pathogens Presenting a Primary, Not Human-Linked, Environmental Habitat" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 8080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158080

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