Next Article in Journal
PACAP Modulates the Autophagy Process in an In Vitro Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Previous Article in Journal
Cannabis and Canabidinoids on the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Going Beyond Misuse
Previous Article in Special Issue
Zinc Finger Proteins in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
Open AccessReview

Japan’s Practical Guidelines for Zinc Deficiency with a Particular Focus on Taste Disorders, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Liver Cirrhosis

1
Department of Health and Dietetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, 2-51-4, Higashiikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-8445, Japan
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
3
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 620-8566, Japan
4
Department of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Oncology, International Cancer Institute, Osaka 541-8567, Japan
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082941
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc Biology 2019)
Zinc deficiency is common in Japan, yet awareness on this disorder is lacking. The Japanese Society of Clinical Nutrition recently issued the Japan’s Practical Guideline for Zinc Deficiency 2018 setting forth criteria for diagnosing zinc deficiency, i.e., (a) one or more symptoms of zinc deficiency or low serum alkaline phosphatase, (b) ruling out other diseases, (c) low serum zinc, and (d) alleviation of symptoms upon zinc administration. Serum zinc <60 μg/dL and 60–80 μg/dL indicate zinc deficiency and marginal deficiency, respectively. Zinc deficiency symptoms vary and include dermatitis and taste disorders among others. Zinc administration improves taste in 50–82% of patients suffering from taste disorders (a common symptom of zinc deficiency). Effects of zinc administration do not appear immediately, and therapy should be continued for at least three months. Zinc deficiency often accompanies various diseases and conditions. Here, we focus on inflammatory bowel diseases and liver cirrhosis. As zinc deficiency enhances intestinal inflammation via macrophage activation, we discuss the pathological mechanism for inflammation and zinc deficiency in the context of IBD. Zinc deficiency can also lead to a nitrogen metabolic disorder in patients with liver cirrhosis. Zinc supplementation can improve not only the ammonia metabolism, but also the protein metabolism. We also discuss directions for future studies of zinc deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc deficiency; practical guideline; taste disorder; inflammatory bowel disease; chronic liver diseases zinc deficiency; practical guideline; taste disorder; inflammatory bowel disease; chronic liver diseases
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kodama, H.; Tanaka, M.; Naito, Y.; Katayama, K.; Moriyama, M. Japan’s Practical Guidelines for Zinc Deficiency with a Particular Focus on Taste Disorders, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Liver Cirrhosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2941.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop