Cannabis and Canabidinoids on the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Going Beyond Misuse
Postgraduate Program in Structural and Functional Interactions in Rehabilitation, University of Marilia (UNIMAR), Avenue Hygino Muzzy Filho, 1001, Marília 17525902, São Paulo, Brazil
School of Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Avenida Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001, Marília 17525902, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Technology of Marília, Marília 17525902, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Avenida Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001, Marília 17525902, São Paulo, Brazil
Bauru School of Dentistry, Department of Biological Sciences, University of São Paulo (FOB–USP), Alameda Doutor Octávio Pinheiro Brisolla, 9-75, Bauru 17040, São Paulo, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082940
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by a chronic and recurrent gastrointestinal condition, including mainly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Cannabis sativa (CS) is widely used for medicinal, recreational, and religious purposes. The most studied compound of CS is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Besides many relevant therapeutic roles such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, there is still much controversy about the consumption of this plant since the misuse can lead to serious health problems. Because of these reasons, the aim of this review is to investigate the effects of CS on the treatment of UC and CD. The literature search was performed in PubMed/Medline, PMC, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The use of CS leads to the improvement of UC and CD scores and quality of life. The medical use of CS is on the rise. Although the literature shows relevant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that could improve UC and CD scores, it is still not possible to establish a treatment criterion since the studies have no standardization regarding the variety and part of the plant that is used, route of administration and doses. Therefore, we suggest caution in the use of CS in the therapeutic approach of IBD until clinical trials with standardization and a relevant number of patients are performed.