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Review

Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) in Neuroborreliosis and Neurosyphilis as Selected Spirochetal Neurological Diseases: A Review of Its Diagnostic Significance

1
Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082927
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion and Migration in Health and Diseases)
Neuroborreliosis (NB) and neurosyphilis (NS) are abnormal conditions caused by spirochetal bacteria which affect the nervous system. Diagnosis of neuroborreliosis and neurosyphilis is determined by clinical examination of visible symptoms, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Treponema pallidum, respectively. Establishing a diagnosis may sometimes pose a number of diagnostic difficulties. A potential role of chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) as an accurate diagnostic biomarker of intrathecal inflammation has been suggested. In this review, we focused on changes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentration of chemokine ligand 13 in selected spirochetal neurological diseases neuroborreliosis and neurosyphilis reported in the available literature. We performed an extensive search of the literature relevant to our investigation via the MEDLINE/PubMed database. It has been proven that CXCL13 determination can provide rapid information regarding central nervous system inflammation in patients with selected spirochetosis. We described that neuroborreliosis and neurosyphilis are associated with an elevated CXCL13 concentration, mainly in the cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, literature data suggest that CXCL13 determination is the most interesting additional marker for diagnosis and monitoring of neuroborreliosis and neurosyphilis thanks to its high sensitivity. Based on these published findings, we suggest that CXCL13 has high diagnostic utility and may be applied in laboratory diagnostics as a potential diagnostic marker in human spirochetal neurologic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: CXCL13; chemokine; diagnostic marker; neuroborreliosis; neurosyphilis; inflammation; cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13; chemokine; diagnostic marker; neuroborreliosis; neurosyphilis; inflammation; cerebrospinal fluid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gudowska-Sawczuk, M.; Mroczko, B. Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) in Neuroborreliosis and Neurosyphilis as Selected Spirochetal Neurological Diseases: A Review of Its Diagnostic Significance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082927

AMA Style

Gudowska-Sawczuk M, Mroczko B. Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) in Neuroborreliosis and Neurosyphilis as Selected Spirochetal Neurological Diseases: A Review of Its Diagnostic Significance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(8):2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gudowska-Sawczuk, Monika, and Barbara Mroczko. 2020. "Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) in Neuroborreliosis and Neurosyphilis as Selected Spirochetal Neurological Diseases: A Review of Its Diagnostic Significance" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 8: 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082927

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