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Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Their Effects during Female Puberty: A Review of Current Evidence
Article

Developmental Exposure to the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster 550 Compromises Adult Bone Integrity in Male but not Female Rats

1
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
2
Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Department of Morphology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
5
Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072553
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2.0)
Flame retardants (FRs) are used in a variety of common items from furniture to carpet to electronics to reduce flammability and combustion, but the potential toxicity of these compounds is raising health concerns globally. Organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) are becoming more prevalent as older, brominated FRs are phased out, but the toxicity of these compounds, and the FR mixtures that contain them, is poorly understood. Work in a variety of in vitro model systems has suggested that FRs may induce metabolic reprogramming such that bone density is compromised at the expense of increasing adiposity. To address this hypothesis, the present studies maternally exposed Wistar rat dams orally across gestation and lactation to 1000 µg daily of the FR mixture Firemaster 550 (FM 550) which contains a mixture of brominated FRs and OPFRs. At six months of age, the offspring of both sexes were examined for evidence of compromised bone composition. Bone density, composition, and marrow were all significantly affected, but only in males. The fact that the phenotype was observed months after exposure suggests that FM 550 altered some fundamental aspect of mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming. The severity of the phenotype and the human-relevance of the dose employed, affirm this is an adverse outcome meriting further exploration. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesogen; endocrine disrupting chemicals; sex difference; adipose; trabecular; cortical bone; ppar gamma obesogen; endocrine disrupting chemicals; sex difference; adipose; trabecular; cortical bone; ppar gamma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macari, S.; Rock, K.D.; Santos, M.S.; Lima, V.T.M.; Szawka, R.E.; Moss, J.; Horman, B.; Patisaul, H.B. Developmental Exposure to the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster 550 Compromises Adult Bone Integrity in Male but not Female Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2553. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072553

AMA Style

Macari S, Rock KD, Santos MS, Lima VTM, Szawka RE, Moss J, Horman B, Patisaul HB. Developmental Exposure to the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster 550 Compromises Adult Bone Integrity in Male but not Female Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2553. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072553

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macari, Soraia; Rock, Kylie D.; Santos, Mariana S.; Lima, Virgínia T.M.; Szawka, Raphael E.; Moss, Jamal; Horman, Brian; Patisaul, Heather B. 2020. "Developmental Exposure to the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster 550 Compromises Adult Bone Integrity in Male but not Female Rats" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 7: 2553. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072553

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