In a recent report, no significance of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) was noted in the analyses of expression differences between normal and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), although we found that knock down of TGase 2 induced significant p53-mediated cell death in ccRCC. Generally, to find effective therapeutic targets, we need to identify targets that belong specifically to a cancer phenotype that can be differentiated from a normal phenotype. Here, we offer precise reasons why TGase 2 may be the first therapeutic target for ccRCC, according to several lines of evidence. TGase 2 is negatively regulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) and positively regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, most of ccRCC presents high level expression of TGase 2 because over 90% of ccRCC showed VHL
inactivity through mutation and methylation. Cell death, angiogenesis and drug resistance were specifically regulated by TGase 2 through p53 depletion in ccRCC because over 90% of ccRCC express wild type p53, which is a cell death inducer as well as a HIF-1α suppressor. Although there have been no detailed studies of the physiological role of TGase 2 in multi-omics analyses of ccRCC, a life-long study of the physiological roles of TGase 2 led to the discovery of the first target as well as the first therapeutic treatment for ccRCC in the clinical field.
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