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Open AccessReview

Microbial Transglutaminase as a Tool to Improve the Features of Hydrocolloid-Based Bioplastics

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Unità Operativa Struttura Complessa Medicina di Laboratorio, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Maria di Loreto Nuovo, ASL Na1 Centro, 80145 Naples, Italy
3
Analysis, Poison control and Calibration Center (APCC), An-Najah National University, P.O. Box 7 Nablus, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103656
Received: 2 May 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
Several proteins from animal and plant origin act as microbial transglutaminase substrate, a crosslinking enzyme capable of introducing isopeptide bonds into proteins between the aminoacids glutamines and lysines. This feature has been widely exploited to modify the biological properties of many proteins, such as emulsifying, gelling, viscosity, and foaming. Besides, microbial transglutaminase has been used to prepare bioplastics that, because made of renewable molecules, are able to replace the high polluting plastics of petrochemical origin. In fact, most of the time, it has been shown that the microbial enzyme strengthens the matrix of protein-based bioplastics, thus, influencing the technological characteristics of the derived materials. In this review, an overview of the ability of many proteins to behave as good substrates of the enzyme and their ability to give rise to bioplastics with improved properties is presented. Different applications of this enzyme confirm its important role as an additive to recover high value-added protein containing by-products with a double aim (i) to produce environmentally friendly materials and (ii) to find alternative uses of wastes as renewable, cheap, and non-polluting sources. Both principles are in line with the bio-economy paradigm. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioplastics; edible films; technological properties; plastic pollution; enzymatic strengthening bioplastics; edible films; technological properties; plastic pollution; enzymatic strengthening
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giosafatto, C.V.L.; Fusco, A.; Al-Asmar, A.; Mariniello, L. Microbial Transglutaminase as a Tool to Improve the Features of Hydrocolloid-Based Bioplastics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3656.

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