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The Role of Vitamin D in Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vascular Calcification

by 1,2,3, 2,4, 3,5,6, 3,7, 8,9, 10, 3,5,6, 11,12,13,* and 2,4,14,*
1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Cardinal-Tien Hospital, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
2
School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 234, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University Hospital, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan
5
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
6
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 235, Taiwan
7
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Taichung City 43304, Taiwan
8
Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
9
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
10
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
11
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 104, Taiwan
12
Nephrology division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
13
Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital BeiHu Branch, Taipei 108, Taiwan
14
Division of Nephrology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, and School of Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072466
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Vascular Calcification)
Vascular calcification, which involves the deposition of calcifying particles within the arterial wall, is mediated by atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cell osteoblastic changes, adventitial mesenchymal stem cell osteoblastic differentiation, and insufficiency of the calcification inhibitors. Recent observations implied a role for mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in vascular calcification. Mesenchymal stem cells reside in the bone marrow and the adventitial layer of arteries. Endothelial progenitor cells that originate from the bone marrow are an important mechanism for repairing injured endothelial cells. Mesenchymal stem cells may differentiate osteogenically by inflammation or by specific stimuli, which can activate calcification. However, the bioactive substances secreted from mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to mitigate vascular calcification by suppressing inflammation, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Wingless-INT signal. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to vascular calcification. Vitamin D supplement has been used to modulate the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and to lessen vascular injury by stimulating adhesion and migration of endothelial progenitor cells. This narrative review clarifies the role of mesenchymal stem cells and the possible role of vitamin D in the mechanisms of vascular calcification. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular calcification; vitamin D; mesenchymal stem cell; endothelial progenitor cell vascular calcification; vitamin D; mesenchymal stem cell; endothelial progenitor cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hou, Y.-C.; Lu, C.-L.; Zheng, C.-M.; Liu, W.-C.; Yen, T.-H.; Chen, R.-M.; Lin, Y.-F.; Chao, C.-T.; Lu, K.-C. The Role of Vitamin D in Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vascular Calcification. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2466.

AMA Style

Hou Y-C, Lu C-L, Zheng C-M, Liu W-C, Yen T-H, Chen R-M, Lin Y-F, Chao C-T, Lu K-C. The Role of Vitamin D in Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vascular Calcification. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2466.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hou, Yi-Chou; Lu, Chien-Lin; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chao, Chia-Ter; Lu, Kuo-Cheng. 2020. "The Role of Vitamin D in Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vascular Calcification" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 7: 2466.

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