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Cancer Cachexia and Related Metabolic Dysfunction

1
Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo SP 05403-900, Brazil
2
Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, University Medicine Göttingen (UMG), DE-37075 Goettingen, Germany
3
Research Unit, General Hospital Murska Sobota, SI-9000 Murska Sobota, Slovenia
4
National Institute of Public Health, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Division of Cardiology, General Hospital Murska Sobota, SI-9000 Murska Sobota, Slovenia
7
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Goettingen, DE-37099 Goettingen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072321
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cachexia and Related Metabolic Dysfunction)
Cancer cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome marked by a continuous depletion of skeletal muscle mass associated, in some cases, with a reduction in fat mass. It is irreversible by nutritional support alone and affects up to 74% of patients with cancer—dependent on the underlying type of cancer—and is associated with physical function impairment, reduced response to cancer-related therapy, and higher mortality. Organs, like muscle, adipose tissue, and liver, play an important role in the progression of cancer cachexia by exacerbating the pro- and anti-inflammatory response initially activated by the tumor and the immune system of the host. Moreover, this metabolic dysfunction is produced by alterations in glucose, lipids, and protein metabolism that, when maintained chronically, may lead to the loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Although a couple of drugs have yielded positive results in increasing lean body mass with limited impact on physical function, a single therapy has not lead to effective treatment of this condition. Therefore, a multimodal intervention, including pharmacological agents, nutritional support, and physical exercise, may be a reasonable approach for future studies to better understand and prevent the wasting of body compartments in patients with cancer cachexia. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer cachexia; metabolic dysfunction; inflammation; metabolism; clinical management cancer cachexia; metabolic dysfunction; inflammation; metabolism; clinical management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonseca, G.W.P.d.; Farkas, J.; Dora, E.; von Haehling, S.; Lainscak, M. Cancer Cachexia and Related Metabolic Dysfunction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072321

AMA Style

Fonseca GWPd, Farkas J, Dora E, von Haehling S, Lainscak M. Cancer Cachexia and Related Metabolic Dysfunction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonseca, Guilherme W.P.d., Jerneja Farkas, Eva Dora, Stephan von Haehling, and Mitja Lainscak. 2020. "Cancer Cachexia and Related Metabolic Dysfunction" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 7: 2321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072321

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