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Article

Defining Metaniches in the Oral Cavity According to Their Microbial Composition and Cytokine Profile

1
Department of Orthodontics and Orofacial Orthopedics, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Glückstr. 11, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Mikrobiologisches Institut-Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Wasserturmstraße 3/5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Universitätsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
4
Medical Immunology Campus Erlangen, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
5
Department of Medicine 3, Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Glückstr. 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
6
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
7
Department of Orthodontics, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218218
Received: 10 October 2020 / Revised: 27 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 3 November 2020
The human oral microbiota consists of over 700 widespread taxa colonizing the oral cavity in several anatomically diverse oral niches. Lately, sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes has become an acknowledged, culture-independent method to characterize the oral microbiota. However, only a small amount of data are available concerning microbial differences between oral niches in periodontal health and disease. In the context of periodontitis, the cytokine expression in the gingival crevicular fluid has been studied in detail, whereas little is known about the cytokine profile in hard and soft tissue biofilms. In order to characterize oral niches in periodontal health, the oral microbiota and cytokine pattern were analyzed at seven different sites (plaque (P), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva (S), tongue (T), hard palate (HP), cheek (C) and sublingual area (U)) of 20 young adults using next-generation sequencing and multiplex immunoassays. Site-specific microbial compositions were detected, which clustered into three distinct metaniches (“P-GCF”, “S-T-HP” and “C-U”) and were associated with niche-/metaniche-specific cytokine profiles. Our findings allow the definition of distinct metaniches according to their microbial composition, partly reflected by their cytokine profile, and provide new insights into microenvironmental similarities between anatomical diverse oral niches. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral microbiota; oral niches; metaniches; cytokine profile; oral biofilms and fluids; next-generation sequencing; multiplex immunoassay oral microbiota; oral niches; metaniches; cytokine profile; oral biofilms and fluids; next-generation sequencing; multiplex immunoassay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seidel, C.L.; Gerlach, R.G.; Wiedemann, P.; Weider, M.; Rodrian, G.; Hader, M.; Frey, B.; Gaipl, U.S.; Bozec, A.; Cieplik, F.; Kirschneck, C.; Bogdan, C.; Gölz, L. Defining Metaniches in the Oral Cavity According to Their Microbial Composition and Cytokine Profile. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218218

AMA Style

Seidel CL, Gerlach RG, Wiedemann P, Weider M, Rodrian G, Hader M, Frey B, Gaipl US, Bozec A, Cieplik F, Kirschneck C, Bogdan C, Gölz L. Defining Metaniches in the Oral Cavity According to Their Microbial Composition and Cytokine Profile. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seidel, Corinna L., Roman G. Gerlach, Patrick Wiedemann, Matthias Weider, Gabriele Rodrian, Michael Hader, Benjamin Frey, Udo S. Gaipl, Aline Bozec, Fabian Cieplik, Christian Kirschneck, Christian Bogdan, and Lina Gölz. 2020. "Defining Metaniches in the Oral Cavity According to Their Microbial Composition and Cytokine Profile" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218218

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