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Dissecting Molecular Features of Gliomas: Genetic Loci and Validated Biomarkers

1
IRCCS Neuromed, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
2
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies on Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino “Carlo Bò”, 61029 Urbino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020685
Received: 23 November 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Brain Tumors)
Recently, several studies focused on the genetics of gliomas. This allowed identifying several germline loci that contribute to individual risk for tumor development, as well as various somatic mutations that are key for disease classification. Unfortunately, none of the germline loci clearly confers increased risk per se. Contrariwise, somatic mutations identified within the glioma tissue define tumor genotype, thus representing valid diagnostic and prognostic markers. Thus, genetic features can be used in glioma classification and guided therapy. Such copious genomic variabilities are screened routinely in glioma diagnosis. In detail, Sanger sequencing or pyrosequencing, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and microsatellite analyses were added to immunohistochemistry as diagnostic markers. Recently, Next Generation Sequencing was set-up as an all-in-one diagnostic tool aimed at detecting both DNA copy number variations and mutations in gliomas. This approach is widely used also to detect circulating tumor DNA within cerebrospinal fluid from patients affected by primary brain tumors. Such an approach is providing an alternative cost-effective strategy to genotype all gliomas, which allows avoiding surgical tissue collection and repeated tumor biopsies. This review summarizes available molecular features that represent solid tools for the genetic diagnosis of gliomas at present or in the next future. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; Next Generation Sequencing; Biomarkers; liquid biopsy; molecular diagnostics glioblastoma; Next Generation Sequencing; Biomarkers; liquid biopsy; molecular diagnostics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arcella, A.; Limanaqi, F.; Ferese, R.; Biagioni, F.; Oliva, M.A.; Storto, M.; Fanelli, M.; Gambardella, S.; Fornai, F. Dissecting Molecular Features of Gliomas: Genetic Loci and Validated Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 685. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020685

AMA Style

Arcella A, Limanaqi F, Ferese R, Biagioni F, Oliva MA, Storto M, Fanelli M, Gambardella S, Fornai F. Dissecting Molecular Features of Gliomas: Genetic Loci and Validated Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2):685. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arcella, Antonietta; Limanaqi, Fiona; Ferese, Rosangela; Biagioni, Francesca; Oliva, Maria A.; Storto, Marianna; Fanelli, Mirco; Gambardella, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco. 2020. "Dissecting Molecular Features of Gliomas: Genetic Loci and Validated Biomarkers" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 2: 685. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020685

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