Epilepsy is one of the most common brain diseases worldwide, having a huge burden in society. The main hallmark of epilepsy is the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures, having a tremendous impact on the lives of the patients and of their relatives. Currently, the therapeutic strategies are mostly based on the use of antiepileptic drugs, and because several types of epilepsies are of unknown origin, a high percentage of patients are resistant to the available pharmacotherapy, continuing to experience seizures overtime. Therefore, the search for new drugs and therapeutic targets is highly important. One key aspect to be targeted is the aberrant adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) derived from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs). Indeed, targeting seizure-induced AHN may reduce recurrent seizures and shed some light on the mechanisms of disease. The endocannabinoid system is a known modulator of AHN, and due to the known endogenous antiepileptic properties, it is an interesting candidate for the generation of new antiepileptic drugs. However, further studies and clinical trials are required to investigate the putative mechanisms by which cannabinoids can be used to treat epilepsy. In this manuscript, we will review how cannabinoid-induced modulation of NSCs may promote neural plasticity and whether these drugs can be used as putative antiepileptic treatment.
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