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Review

Multifaceted Roles of Mitochondrial Components and Metabolites in Metabolic Diseases and Cancer

1
Institute for Regenerative Medicine & Biotherapy (IRMB), INSERM, Univ Montpellier, F-34090 Montpellier, France
2
Institute of Molecular Genetics of Montpellier (IGMM), CNRS, Univ Montpellier, F-34090 Montpellier, France
3
Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, F-94010 Creteil, France
4
EnvA, IMRB, F-94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
5
EFS, Mondor Institute for Biomedical Research (IMRB), F-94010 Creteil, France
6
AP-HP, Hopital Mondor, Service d’histologie, F-94010 Creteil, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124405
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 20 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Approaches in Health and Disease)
Mitochondria are essential cellular components that ensure physiological metabolic functions. They provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the electron transport chain (ETC). They also constitute a metabolic hub in which metabolites are used and processed, notably through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. These newly generated metabolites have the capacity to feed other cellular metabolic pathways; modify cellular functions; and, ultimately, generate specific phenotypes. Mitochondria also provide intracellular signaling cues through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. As expected with such a central cellular role, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been linked to many different diseases. The origins of some of these diseases could be pinpointed to specific mutations in both mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded genes. In addition to their impressive intracellular tasks, mitochondria also provide intercellular signaling as they can be exchanged between cells, with resulting effects ranging from repair of damaged cells to strengthened progression and chemo-resistance of cancer cells. Several therapeutic options can now be envisioned to rescue mitochondria-defective cells. They include gene therapy for both mitochondrial and nuclear defective genes. Transferring exogenous mitochondria to target cells is also a whole new area of investigation. Finally, supplementing targeted metabolites, possibly through microbiota transplantation, appears as another therapeutic approach full of promises. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; electron transport chain (ETC); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle; mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); metabolism; mitochondria exchange; microbiota; metabolites; cancer; therapy mitochondria; electron transport chain (ETC); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle; mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); metabolism; mitochondria exchange; microbiota; metabolites; cancer; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakhle, J.; Rodriguez, A.-M.; Vignais, M.-L. Multifaceted Roles of Mitochondrial Components and Metabolites in Metabolic Diseases and Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124405

AMA Style

Nakhle J, Rodriguez A-M, Vignais M-L. Multifaceted Roles of Mitochondrial Components and Metabolites in Metabolic Diseases and Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakhle, Jean, Anne-Marie Rodriguez, and Marie-Luce Vignais. 2020. "Multifaceted Roles of Mitochondrial Components and Metabolites in Metabolic Diseases and Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124405

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