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Review

Riboflavin Deficiency—Implications for General Human Health and Inborn Errors of Metabolism

1
Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Department for Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
2
Department of Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, 70121 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113847
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD): Biosynthesis and Function)
As an essential vitamin, the role of riboflavin in human diet and health is increasingly being highlighted. Insufficient dietary intake of riboflavin is often reported in nutritional surveys and population studies, even in non-developing countries with abundant sources of riboflavin-rich dietary products. A latent subclinical riboflavin deficiency can result in a significant clinical phenotype when combined with inborn genetic disturbances or environmental and physiological factors like infections, exercise, diet, aging and pregnancy. Riboflavin, and more importantly its derivatives, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), play a crucial role in essential cellular processes including mitochondrial energy metabolism, stress responses, vitamin and cofactor biogenesis, where they function as cofactors to ensure the catalytic activity and folding/stability of flavoenzymes. Numerous inborn errors of flavin metabolism and flavoenzyme function have been described, and supplementation with riboflavin has in many cases been shown to be lifesaving or to mitigate symptoms. This review discusses the environmental, physiological and genetic factors that affect cellular riboflavin status. We describe the crucial role of riboflavin for general human health, and the clear benefits of riboflavin treatment in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: riboflavin; riboflavin deficiency; energy metabolism; mitochondria; fatty acid oxidation; acyl-CoA dehydrogenases; inborn errors of metabolism; electron transport chain; folding; MADD riboflavin; riboflavin deficiency; energy metabolism; mitochondria; fatty acid oxidation; acyl-CoA dehydrogenases; inborn errors of metabolism; electron transport chain; folding; MADD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mosegaard, S.; Dipace, G.; Bross, P.; Carlsen, J.; Gregersen, N.; Olsen, R.K.J. Riboflavin Deficiency—Implications for General Human Health and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3847. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113847

AMA Style

Mosegaard S, Dipace G, Bross P, Carlsen J, Gregersen N, Olsen RKJ. Riboflavin Deficiency—Implications for General Human Health and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):3847. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113847

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mosegaard, Signe, Graziana Dipace, Peter Bross, Jasper Carlsen, Niels Gregersen, and Rikke Katrine Jentoft Olsen. 2020. "Riboflavin Deficiency—Implications for General Human Health and Inborn Errors of Metabolism" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 3847. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113847

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