Hematological Diseases and Osteoporosis
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: UO di Medicina Interna, Policlinico “G. Rodolico”, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103538
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Osteoporosis in Adults)
Secondary osteoporosis is a common clinical problem faced by bone specialists, with a higher frequency in men than in women. One of several causes of secondary osteoporosis is hematological disease. There are numerous hematological diseases that can have a deleterious impact on bone health. In the literature, there is an abundance of evidence of bone involvement in patients affected by multiple myeloma, systemic mastocytosis, thalassemia, and hemophilia; some skeletal disorders are also reported in sickle cell disease. Recently, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance appears to increase fracture risk, predominantly in male subjects. The pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for these bone loss effects have not yet been completely clarified. Many soluble factors, in particular cytokines that regulate bone metabolism, appear to play an important role. An integrated approach to these hematological diseases, with the help of a bone specialist, could reduce the bone fracture rate and improve the quality of life of these patients.