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Article

Iroquois Homeobox Protein 2 Identified as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease

1
Stem Cell Convergence Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea
2
Department of Functional Genomics, KRIBB School of Bioscience, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
3
Group for Biometrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 34113, Korea
4
Department of Molecular & Life Sciences, College of Science & Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
5
Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Department of Convergence Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine/Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, Korea
6
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103455
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Modeling Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 2.0)
The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is initiated after the occurrence of motor symptoms, such as resting tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. According to previous reports, non-motor symptoms, notably gastrointestinal dysfunction, could potentially be early biomarkers in PD patients as such symptoms occur earlier than motor symptoms. However, connecting PD to the intestine is methodologically challenging. Thus, we generated in vitro human intestinal organoids from PD patients and ex vivo mouse small intestinal organoids from aged transgenic mice. Both intestinal organoids (IOs) contained the human LRRK2 G2019S mutation, which is the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. By conducting comprehensive genomic comparisons with these two types of IOs, we determined that a particular gene, namely, Iroquois homeobox protein 2 (IRX2), showed PD-related expression patterns not only in human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neuroectodermal spheres but also in human PSC-derived neuronal cells containing dopaminergic neurons. We expected that our approach of using various cell types presented a novel technical method for studying the effects of multi-organs in PD pathophysiology as well as for the development of diagnostic markers for PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; LRRK2 G2019S; intestinal organoid; pluripotent stem cells; diagnostic marker; IRX2 Parkinson’s disease; LRRK2 G2019S; intestinal organoid; pluripotent stem cells; diagnostic marker; IRX2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sim, H.; Lee, J.-E.; Yoo, H.M.; Cho, S.; Lee, H.; Baek, A.; Kim, J.; Seo, H.; Kweon, M.-N.; Kim, H.G.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Son, M.-Y.; Kim, J. Iroquois Homeobox Protein 2 Identified as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103455

AMA Style

Sim H, Lee J-E, Yoo HM, Cho S, Lee H, Baek A, Kim J, Seo H, Kweon M-N, Kim HG, Jeon Y-J, Son M-Y, Kim J. Iroquois Homeobox Protein 2 Identified as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(10):3455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103455

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sim, Hyuna, Joo-Eun Lee, Hee M. Yoo, Sunwha Cho, Hana Lee, Aruem Baek, Jisun Kim, Hyemyung Seo, Mi-Na Kweon, Hyung G. Kim, Young-Joo Jeon, Mi-Young Son, and Janghwan Kim. 2020. "Iroquois Homeobox Protein 2 Identified as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 10: 3455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103455

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