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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040793

Molecular Predictors of Complete Response Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder and Upper Tracts

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
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Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research Efforts in Urothelial Carcinoma)
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Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and upper tracts (UTUC) is often regarded as one entity and is managed generally with similar principles. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) is an established standard of care in UCB, strong evidence for a similar approach is lacking in UTUC. The longest survival is seen in patients with complete response (pT0) on pathological examination of the RC specimen, but impact of delayed RC in nonresponders may be detrimental. The rate of pT0 following NAC in UTUC is considerably lower than that in UCB due to differences in access and instrumentation. Molecular markers have been evaluated to try to predict response to chemotherapy to reduce unnecessary treatment and expedite different treatment for nonresponders. A variety of potential biomarkers have been evaluated to predict response to cisplatin based chemotherapy including DNA repair genes (ATM, RB1, FANCC, ERCC2, BRCA1, and ERCC1), regulators of apoptosis (survivin, Bcl-xL, and emmprin), receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR and erbB2), genes involved in cellular efflux (MDR1 and CTR1), in addition to molecular subtypes (Basal, luminal, and p53-like). The current state of the literature on the prediction of response to NAC based on the presence of these biomarkers is discussed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: urothelial carcinoma of the bladder; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; complete response; molecular markers urothelial carcinoma of the bladder; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; complete response; molecular markers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tse, J.; Ghandour, R.; Singla, N.; Lotan, Y. Molecular Predictors of Complete Response Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder and Upper Tracts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 793.

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