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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030760

Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Sarcopenia: Implications in the Management of Urothelial Carcinoma

1
Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
2
Department of Urology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research Efforts in Urothelial Carcinoma)
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Abstract

Sarcopenia, which represents the degenerative and systemic loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a multifactorial syndrome caused by various clinical conditions. Sarcopenia reflects not only frailty and poor general health status, but also the possible presence of advanced or progressive cancer or cancer cachexia. Therefore, sarcopenia affects the management of cancer-bearing patients, including those with urothelial carcinoma. Recently, growing evidence has shown that sarcopenia is significantly associated with higher rates of treatment-related complications and worse prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, upper tract urothelial carcinoma, and advanced urothelial carcinoma. Moreover, several studies reported that a post-therapeutic increase in skeletal muscle mass predicts favorable prognosis in urothelial carcinoma patients. To further explore the role of sarcopenia in the management of urothelial carcinoma patients, comprehensive understanding of its pathophysiology is vital. In this article, we reviewed the metabolic and molecular basis of cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. From this viewpoint, we discussed the possible mechanism of changes in skeletal muscle mass during the course of treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; biomarker; urothelial carcinoma sarcopenia; biomarker; urothelial carcinoma
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Fukushima, H.; Fujii, Y.; Koga, F. Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Sarcopenia: Implications in the Management of Urothelial Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 760.

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