(1) Background: Emerging interest of physicians to use adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for regenerative therapies and the fact that low-dose irradiation (LD-IR ≤ 0.1 Gy) has been reported to enhance the proliferation of several human normal and bone-marrow stem cells, but not that of tumor cells, lead to the idea of improving stem cell therapies via low-dose radiation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate unwanted side effects, as well as proliferation-stimulating mechanisms of LD-IR on ADSCs. (2) Methods: To avoid donor specific effects, ADSCs isolated from mamma reductions of 10 donors were pooled and used for the radiobiological analysis. The clonogenic survival assay was used to classify the long-term effects of low-dose radiation in ADSCs. Afterwards, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, as well as the effect of irradiation on proliferation of ADSCs were investigated. (3) Results: LD (≤ 0.1 Gy) of ionizing radiation promoted the proliferation and survival of ADSCs. Within this dose range neither geno- nor cytotoxic effects were detectable. In contrast, greater doses within the dose range of >0.1–2.0 Gy induced residual double-strand breaks and reduced the long-term survival, as well as the proliferation rate of ADSCs. (4) Conclusions: Our data suggest that ADSCs are resistant to LD-IR. Furthermore, LD-IR could be a possible mediator to improve approaches of stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine.
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