Next Article in Journal
Different Forms of TFF2, A Lectin of the Human Gastric Mucus Barrier: In Vitro Binding Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Mycobacterium abscessus, an Emerging and Worrisome Pathogen among Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Open AccessArticle

Towards Exploring Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Geobacillus: A Screen for Type II Toxin-Antitoxin System Families in a Thermophilic Genus

1
Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Biology, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235869
Received: 27 October 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been attracting attention due to their role in regulating stress responses in prokaryotes and their biotechnological potential. Much recognition has been given to type II TA system of mesophiles, while thermophiles have received merely limited attention. Here, we are presenting the putative type II TA families encoded on the genomes of four Geobacillus strains. We employed the TA finder tool to mine for TA-coding genes and manually curated the results using protein domain analysis tools. We also used the NCBI BLAST, Operon Mapper, ProOpDB, and sequence alignment tools to reveal the geobacilli TA features. We identified 28 putative TA pairs, distributed over eight TA families. Among the identified TAs, 15 represent putative novel toxins and antitoxins, belonging to the MazEF, MNT-HEPN, ParDE, RelBE, and XRE-COG2856 TA families. We also identified a potentially new TA composite, AbrB-ParE. Furthermore, we are suggesting the Geobacillus acetyltransferase TA (GacTA) family, which potentially represents one of the unique TA families with a reverse gene order. Moreover, we are proposing a hypothesis on the xre-cog2856 gene expression regulation, which seems to involve the c-di-AMP. This study aims for highlighting the significance of studying TAs in Geobacillus and facilitating future experimental research. View Full-Text
Keywords: AbrB-ParE; c-di-AMP; Geobacillus kaustophilus; Geobacillus thermodenitrificans; Geobacillus thermoleovorans; Geobacillus sp. ZGt-1; GNAT-HTH; (p)ppGpp; MNT-HEPN; XRE-COG2856 AbrB-ParE; c-di-AMP; Geobacillus kaustophilus; Geobacillus thermodenitrificans; Geobacillus thermoleovorans; Geobacillus sp. ZGt-1; GNAT-HTH; (p)ppGpp; MNT-HEPN; XRE-COG2856
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alkhalili, R.N.; Wallenius, J.; Canbäck, B. Towards Exploring Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Geobacillus: A Screen for Type II Toxin-Antitoxin System Families in a Thermophilic Genus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235869

AMA Style

Alkhalili RN, Wallenius J, Canbäck B. Towards Exploring Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Geobacillus: A Screen for Type II Toxin-Antitoxin System Families in a Thermophilic Genus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(23):5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alkhalili, Rawana N.; Wallenius, Joel; Canbäck, Björn. 2019. "Towards Exploring Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Geobacillus: A Screen for Type II Toxin-Antitoxin System Families in a Thermophilic Genus" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 23: 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235869

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop