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Open AccessReview

Resistance to Cereal Cyst Nematodes in Wheat and Barley: An Emphasis on Classical and Modern Approaches

1
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
2
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Ankara 06511, Turkey
3
Department of Plant Production and Technologies, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Nigde 51240, Turkey
4
Department of Agricultural Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Nigde 51240, Turkey
5
College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
6
National Engineering Laboratory for Crop Molecular Breeding, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020432
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Advances in Wheat and Barley)
Cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs) are among the most important nematode pests that limit production of small grain cereals like wheat and barley. These nematodes alone are estimated to reduce production of crops by 10% globally. This necessitates a huge enhancement of nematode resistance in cereal crops against CCNs. Nematode resistance in wheat and barley in combination with higher grain yields has been a preferential research area for cereal nematologists. This usually involved the targeted genetic exploitations through natural means of classical selection breeding of resistant genotypes and finding quantitative trait luci (QTLs) associated with resistance genes. These improvements were based on available genetic diversity among the crop plants. Recently, genome-wide association studies have widely been exploited to associate nematode resistance or susceptibility with particular regions of the genome. Use of biotechnological tools through the application of various transgenic strategies for enhancement of nematode resistance in various crop plants including wheat and barley had also been an important area of research. These modern approaches primarily include the use of gene silencing, exploitation of nematode effector genes, proteinase inhibitors, chemodisruptive peptides and a combination of one or more of these approaches. Furthermore, the perspective genome editing technologies including CRISPR-Cas9 could also be helpful for improving CCN resistance in wheat and barley. The information provided in this review will be helpful to enhance resistance against CCNs and will attract the attention of the scientific community towards this neglected area. View Full-Text
Keywords: cereal cyst nematodes; wheat; barely; breeding; biotechnology; resistance cereal cyst nematodes; wheat; barely; breeding; biotechnology; resistance
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Ali, M.A.; Shahzadi, M.; Zahoor, A.; Dababat, A.A.; Toktay, H.; Bakhsh, A.; Nawaz, M.A.; Li, H. Resistance to Cereal Cyst Nematodes in Wheat and Barley: An Emphasis on Classical and Modern Approaches. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 432.

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