Next Article in Journal
Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Lotus japonicus
Previous Article in Journal
Silencing of Transcription Factor Sp1 Promotes SN1 Transporter Regulation by Ammonia in Mouse Cortical Astrocytes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extracellular Vesicles: New Players in Lymphomas
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020236

On the Choice of the Extracellular Vesicles for Therapeutic Purposes

1
Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advances Diagnosis (BIND), Section of Human Anatomy, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2
Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), 90139 Palermo, Italy
3
Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council, 90143 Palermo, Italy
4
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Health, 00161 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122-6078, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in Health and Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1264 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by all human cells and are widely recognized to be involved in many cellular processes, both in physiological and pathological conditions. They are mediators of cell-cell communication, at both paracrine and systemic levels, and therefore they are active players in cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and organ remodeling. Due to their ability to serve as a cargo for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which often reflects the cellular source, they should be considered the future of the natural nanodelivery of bio-compounds. To date, natural nanovesicles, such as exosomes, have been shown to represent a source of disease biomarkers and have high potential benefits in regenerative medicine. Indeed, they deliver both chemical and bio-molecules in a way that within exosomes drugs are more effective that in their exosome-free form. Thus, to date, we know that exosomes are shuttle disease biomarkers and probably the most effective way to deliver therapeutic molecules within target cells. However, we do not know exactly which exosomes may be used in therapy in avoiding side effects as well. In regenerative medicine, it will be ideal to use autologous exosomes, but it seems not ideal to use plasma-derived exosomes, as they may contain potentially dangerous molecules. Here, we want to present and discuss a contradictory relatively unmet issue that is the lack of a general agreement on the choice for the source of extracellular vesicles for therapeutic use. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); exosomes; biomarkers; nanodelivery; theranostics; regenerative medicine extracellular vesicles (EVs); exosomes; biomarkers; nanodelivery; theranostics; regenerative medicine
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Campanella, C.; Caruso Bavisotto, C.; Logozzi, M.; Marino Gammazza, A.; Mizzoni, D.; Cappello, F.; Fais, S. On the Choice of the Extracellular Vesicles for Therapeutic Purposes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 236.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top