Next Article in Journal
A Generalized Kinetic Model for Coupling between Stepping and ATP Hydrolysis of Kinesin Molecular Motors
Previous Article in Journal
The Ratio of Oxidized Lipoprotein(a) to Native Lipoprotein(a) and the Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nutritional Factors, DNA Methylation, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Perspectives and Challenges
Review

Vitamin D as A Protector of Arterial Health: Potential Role in Peripheral Arterial Disease Formation

College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194907
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases)
Atherosclerotic occlusive diseases and aneurysms that affect large and medium-sized arteries outside the cardiac and cerebral circulation are collectively known as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With a rise in the rate of aging population worldwide, the number of people diagnosed with PAD is rapidly increasing. The micronutrient vitamin D is an important steroid hormone that acts on many crucial cellular mechanisms. Experimental studies suggest that optimal levels of vitamin D have beneficial effects on the heart and blood vessels; however, high vitamin D concentrations have been implicated in promoting vascular calcification and arterial stiffness. Observations from various clinical studies shows that deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with a greater risk of PAD. Epidemiological studies have often reported an inverse relation between circulating vitamin D status measured in terms of 25-hydroxivitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, randomized controlled trials did not show a consistent positive effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk or events. Even though PAD shares all the major risk factors with cardiovascular diseases, the effect of vitamin D deficiency in PAD is not clear. Current evidence suggests a strong role of vitamin D in promoting genomic and epigenomic changes. This review summarises the current literature that supports the notion that vitamin D deficiency may promote PAD formation. A better understanding of underlying pathological mechanisms will open up new therapeutic possibilities which is the main unmet need in PAD management. Furthermore, epigenetic evidence shows that a more holistic approach towards PAD prevention that incorporates a healthy lifestyle, adequate exercise and optimal nutrition may be more effective in protecting the genome and maintaining a healthy vasculature. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25(OH)D; peripheral arterial disease; peripheral arterial occlusive disease; abdominal aortic aneurysm; epigenetics vitamin D; 25(OH)D; peripheral arterial disease; peripheral arterial occlusive disease; abdominal aortic aneurysm; epigenetics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Krishna, S.M. Vitamin D as A Protector of Arterial Health: Potential Role in Peripheral Arterial Disease Formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4907. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194907

AMA Style

Krishna SM. Vitamin D as A Protector of Arterial Health: Potential Role in Peripheral Arterial Disease Formation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(19):4907. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194907

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krishna, Smriti M. 2019. "Vitamin D as A Protector of Arterial Health: Potential Role in Peripheral Arterial Disease Formation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 19: 4907. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194907

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop