Epilepsy represents one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Recurrent seizures are the cardinal clinical manifestation. Although it has been reported that the underlying pathological processes include inflammation, changes in synaptic strength, apoptosis, and ion channels dysfunction, currently the pathogenesis of epilepsy is not yet completely understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of long transcripts without protein-coding capacity, have emerged as regulatory molecules that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. A growing number of studies reported that lncRNAs participate in the regulation of pathological processes of epilepsy and they are dysregulated during epileptogenesis. Moreover, an aberrant expression of lncRNAs linked to epilepsy has been observed both in patients and in animal models. In this review, we summarize latest advances concerning the mechanisms of action and the involvement of the most dysregulated lncRNAs in epilepsy. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs in the disease pathogenesis are still to be explored and we are only at the beginning. Additional studies are needed for the complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms and they would result in the use of lncRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.
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