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Open AccessArticle

Insights into the Phylogeny and Evolution of Cold Shock Proteins: From Enteropathogenic Yersinia and Escherichia coli to Eubacteria

1
Department of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, China
2
Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20164059
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
Psychrotrophic foodborne pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Yersinia, which are able to survive and multiply at low temperatures, require cold shock proteins (Csps). The Csp superfamily consists of a diverse group of homologous proteins, which have been found throughout the eubacteria. They are related to cold shock tolerance and other cellular processes. Csps are mainly named following the convention of those in Escherichia coli. However, the nomenclature of certain Csps reflects neither their sequences nor functions, which can be confusing. Here, we performed phylogenetic analyses on Csp sequences in psychrotrophic enteropathogenic Yersinia and E. coli. We found that representative Csps in enteropathogenic Yersinia and E. coli can be clustered into six phylogenetic groups. When we extended the analysis to cover Enterobacteriales, the same major groups formed. Moreover, we investigated the evolutionary and structural relationships and the origin time of Csp superfamily members in eubacteria using nucleotide-level comparisons. Csps in eubacteria were classified into five clades and 12 subclades. The most recent common ancestor of Csp genes was estimated to have existed 3585 million years ago, indicating that Csps have been important since the beginning of evolution and have enabled bacterial growth in unfavorable conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold shock protein; enteropathogenic Yersinia; eubacteria; phylogeny; evolution cold shock protein; enteropathogenic Yersinia; eubacteria; phylogeny; evolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, T.; Keto-Timonen, R.; Jiang, X.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Korkeala, H. Insights into the Phylogeny and Evolution of Cold Shock Proteins: From Enteropathogenic Yersinia and Escherichia coli to Eubacteria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4059.

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