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The Intercalation of CORM-2 with Pharmaceutical Clay Montmorillonite (MMT) Aids for Therapeutic Carbon Monoxide Release

1
Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
2
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
3
Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143453
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers)
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Abstract

The pharmaceutical clay montmorillonite (MMT) is, for the first time, explored as a carbon monoxide-releasing material (CORMat). MMT consists of silicate double layered structure; its exfoliation feature intercalate the CORM-2 [RuCl(μ-Cl)(CO)3]2 inside the layers to suppress the toxicity of organometallic segment. The infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the existence of ruthenium coordinated carbonyl ligand in MMT layers. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that ruthenium element in this material was about 5%. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the layer-structure of MMT has been maintained after loading the ruthenium carbonyl segment. Moreover, the layers have been stretched out, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thermogravimetric (TG) curves with huge weight loss around 100–200 °C were attributed to the CO hot-release of ruthenium carbonyl as well as the loss of the adsorbed solvent molecules and the water molecules between the layers. The CO-liberating properties have been assessed through myoglobin assay. The horse myoglobin test showed that the material could be hydrolyzed to slowly release carbon monoxide in physiological environments. The half-life of CO release was much longer than that of CORM-3, and it has an excellent environmental tolerance and slow release effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO; CO-releasing materials; CO-releasing molecules; pharmaceutical clay; montmorillonite; CO kinetic profile; myoglobin assay; therapeutic applications CO; CO-releasing materials; CO-releasing molecules; pharmaceutical clay; montmorillonite; CO kinetic profile; myoglobin assay; therapeutic applications
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Faizan, M.; Niazi, K.U.K.; Muhammad, N.; Hu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Lin, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Gao, Z. The Intercalation of CORM-2 with Pharmaceutical Clay Montmorillonite (MMT) Aids for Therapeutic Carbon Monoxide Release. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3453.

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