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Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis: A Review

Department of Nutrition, Food & Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA
Department of Surgery, Capital Regional Medical Center, Tallahassee, FL 32308, USA
Department of Surgery, Baylor Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX 76508, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2446;
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
PDF [482 KB, uploaded 17 May 2019]


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms are cytokines involved in a variety of cellular processes, including myofiber repair and regulation of connective tissue formation. Activation of the TGF-β pathway contributes to pathologic fibrosis in most organs. Here, we have focused on examining the evidence demonstrating the involvement of TGF-β in the fibrosis of skeletal muscle particularly. The TGF-β pathway plays a role in different skeletal muscle myopathies, and TGF-β signaling is highly induced in these diseases. In this review, we discuss different molecular mechanisms of TGF-β-mediated skeletal muscle fibrosis and highlight different TGF-β-targeted treatments that target these relevant pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: TGF-β; fibrosis; skeletal muscle; myopathy TGF-β; fibrosis; skeletal muscle; myopathy

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Ismaeel, A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kirk, J.S.; Smith, R.S.; Bohannon, W.T.; Koutakis, P. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2446.

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