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Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis: A Review

1
Department of Nutrition, Food & Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Capital Regional Medical Center, Tallahassee, FL 32308, USA
3
Department of Surgery, Baylor Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX 76508, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102446
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms are cytokines involved in a variety of cellular processes, including myofiber repair and regulation of connective tissue formation. Activation of the TGF-β pathway contributes to pathologic fibrosis in most organs. Here, we have focused on examining the evidence demonstrating the involvement of TGF-β in the fibrosis of skeletal muscle particularly. The TGF-β pathway plays a role in different skeletal muscle myopathies, and TGF-β signaling is highly induced in these diseases. In this review, we discuss different molecular mechanisms of TGF-β-mediated skeletal muscle fibrosis and highlight different TGF-β-targeted treatments that target these relevant pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: TGF-β; fibrosis; skeletal muscle; myopathy TGF-β; fibrosis; skeletal muscle; myopathy
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Ismaeel, A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kirk, J.S.; Smith, R.S.; Bohannon, W.T.; Koutakis, P. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2446.

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