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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092733

Alterations of Signaling Pathways Related to the Immune System in Breast Cancer: New Perspectives in Patient Management

1
Department of Oncology, Transplantations and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Retired.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alterations to Signalling Pathways in Cancer Cells 2018)
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Abstract

In recent years, immune manipulation for cancer treatment, including breast cancer, has been increasingly gaining consent, and many attempts have been made, mainly by either strengthening the immune response (IR) or by inhibiting immune evasion. Therefore, elucidating the related mechanisms is of importance due to the potential to improve the management of cancer patients by immunotherapy. This review article summarized some recent experimental studies, which have discovered novel alterations of signaling pathways related to the immune system in breast cancer. These altered signaling pathways have been grouped according to the general biological mechanism involved: tumor-initiating cells (TICs), cancer stem cells (CSCs), immune evasion, tumor growth and progression, prediction of clinical outcome and prediction of response, or resistance to chemotherapy. These altered pathways related to the immune system open clinical opportunities for the prognosis or treatment of patients. Many of these pathways are related to the origin of breast cancer and immune evasion. We recommended development of new drugs which act on these molecular pathways, and the designing of clinical trials to be carried out mainly in breast cancer patients who required adjuvant treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; immune response; signaling pathways; tumor initiating cells; cancer stem cells; TNF; NF-κB; CD47 upregulation; STAT-1; STAT-3 breast cancer; immune response; signaling pathways; tumor initiating cells; cancer stem cells; TNF; NF-κB; CD47 upregulation; STAT-1; STAT-3
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nicolini, A.; Ferrari, P.; Diodati, L.; Carpi, A. Alterations of Signaling Pathways Related to the Immune System in Breast Cancer: New Perspectives in Patient Management. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2733.

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