Next Article in Journal
Long Non-Coding RNAs as New Master Regulators of Resistance to Systemic Treatments in Breast Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Guanidinoacetic Acid Regulates Myogenic Differentiation and Muscle Growth Through miR-133a-3p and miR-1a-3p Co-mediated Akt/mTOR/S6K Signaling Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Discovery of lahS as a Global Regulator of Environmental Adaptation and Virulence in Aeromonas hydrophila
Previous Article in Special Issue
General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092710

Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors A2 and A6 are Expressed in Avian Macrophages and Modulate Cytokine Production by Activating Multiple Signaling Pathways

1
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research, 86 Truong Chinh, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling: From Past to Future)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4258 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

The activating leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRAs) play an important role in innate immunity. However, most of the LILRA members have not been characterized in avian species including chickens. The present study is the first attempt at cloning, structural analysis and functional characterization of two LILRAs (LILRA2 and LILRA6) in chickens. Multiple sequence alignments and construction of a phylogenetic tree of chicken LILRA2 and LILRA6 with mammalian proteins revealed high conservation between chicken LILRA2 and LILRA6 and a close relationship between the chicken and mammalian proteins. The mRNA expression of LILRA2 and LILRA6 was high in chicken HD11 macrophages and the small intestine compared to that in several other tissues and cells tested. To examine the function of LILRA2 and LILRA6 in chicken immunity, LILRA2 and LILRA6 were transfected into HD11 cells. Our findings indicated that LILRA2 and LILRA6 are associated with the phosphorylation of Src kinases and SHP2, which play a regulatory role in immune functions. Moreover, LILRA6 associated with and activated MHC class I, β2-microglobulin and induced the expression of transporters associated with antigen processing but LILRA2 did not. Furthermore, both LILRA2 and LILRA6 activated JAK-STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways and induced Th1-, Th2- and Th17-type cytokines and Toll-like receptors. Collectively, this study indicates that LILRA2 and LILRA6 are essential for macrophage-mediated immune responses and they have the potential to complement the innate and adaptive immune system against pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken; LILRA; cytokine; MHC class I; signaling pathway chicken; LILRA; cytokine; MHC class I; signaling pathway
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Truong, A.D.; Rengaraj, D.; Hong, Y.; Tran, H.T.T.; Dang, H.V.; Nguyen, V.K.; Lillehoj, H.S.; Hong, Y.H. Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors A2 and A6 are Expressed in Avian Macrophages and Modulate Cytokine Production by Activating Multiple Signaling Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2710.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top