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Open AccessArticle

Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors A2 and A6 are Expressed in Avian Macrophages and Modulate Cytokine Production by Activating Multiple Signaling Pathways

1
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research, 86 Truong Chinh, Dong Da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092710
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling: From Past to Future)
The activating leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRAs) play an important role in innate immunity. However, most of the LILRA members have not been characterized in avian species including chickens. The present study is the first attempt at cloning, structural analysis and functional characterization of two LILRAs (LILRA2 and LILRA6) in chickens. Multiple sequence alignments and construction of a phylogenetic tree of chicken LILRA2 and LILRA6 with mammalian proteins revealed high conservation between chicken LILRA2 and LILRA6 and a close relationship between the chicken and mammalian proteins. The mRNA expression of LILRA2 and LILRA6 was high in chicken HD11 macrophages and the small intestine compared to that in several other tissues and cells tested. To examine the function of LILRA2 and LILRA6 in chicken immunity, LILRA2 and LILRA6 were transfected into HD11 cells. Our findings indicated that LILRA2 and LILRA6 are associated with the phosphorylation of Src kinases and SHP2, which play a regulatory role in immune functions. Moreover, LILRA6 associated with and activated MHC class I, β2-microglobulin and induced the expression of transporters associated with antigen processing but LILRA2 did not. Furthermore, both LILRA2 and LILRA6 activated JAK-STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways and induced Th1-, Th2- and Th17-type cytokines and Toll-like receptors. Collectively, this study indicates that LILRA2 and LILRA6 are essential for macrophage-mediated immune responses and they have the potential to complement the innate and adaptive immune system against pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken; LILRA; cytokine; MHC class I; signaling pathway chicken; LILRA; cytokine; MHC class I; signaling pathway
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Truong, A.D.; Rengaraj, D.; Hong, Y.; Tran, H.T.T.; Dang, H.V.; Nguyen, V.K.; Lillehoj, H.S.; Hong, Y.H. Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors A2 and A6 are Expressed in Avian Macrophages and Modulate Cytokine Production by Activating Multiple Signaling Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2710.

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