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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082371

ATP as a Pathophysiologic Mediator of Bacteria-Host Crosstalk in the Gastrointestinal Tract

1
,
1,2,3,4,5
and
1,2,3,5,6,7,*
1
Department of Mucosal Immunology, IMSUT Distinguished Professor Unit, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
2
International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, CU-UCSD Center for Mucosal Immunology, Allergy and Vaccines, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0956, USA
4
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
5
Mucosal Immunology and Allergy Therapeutics, Institute for Global Prominent Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
6
Department of Mucosal Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
7
Department of Innovative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Signalling in Cancer and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Extracellular nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released from host cells including nerve termini, immune cells, injured or dead cells, and the commensal bacteria that reside in the gut lumen. Extracellular ATP interacts with the host through purinergic receptors, and promotes intercellular and bacteria-host communication to maintain the tissue homeostasis. However, the release of massive concentrations of ATP into extracellular compartments initiates acute and chronic inflammatory responses through the activation of immunocompetent cells (e.g., T cells, macrophages, and mast cells). In this review, we focus on the functions of ATP as a pathophysiologic mediator that is required for the induction and resolution of inflammation and inter-species communication. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP; adenosine; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); purinergic pathway; inter-species communication; commensal bacteria ATP; adenosine; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); purinergic pathway; inter-species communication; commensal bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Inami, A.; Kiyono, H.; Kurashima, Y. ATP as a Pathophysiologic Mediator of Bacteria-Host Crosstalk in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2371.

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