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Open AccessReview

Emerging Role of Purine Metabolizing Enzymes in Brain Function and Tumors

1
Dipartimento di Biologia, Unità di Fisiologia Generale, Via San Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Biologia, Unità di Biochimica, Via San Zeno 51, 56127 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113598
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Signalling in Cancer and Inflammation)
The growing evidence of the involvement of purine compounds in signaling, of nucleotide imbalance in tumorigenesis, the discovery of purinosome and its regulation, cast new light on purine metabolism, indicating that well known biochemical pathways may still surprise. Adenosine deaminase is important not only to preserve functionality of immune system but also to ensure a correct development and function of central nervous system, probably because its activity regulates the extracellular concentration of adenosine and therefore its function in brain. A lot of work has been done on extracellular 5′-nucleotidase and its involvement in the purinergic signaling, but also intracellular nucleotidases, which regulate the purine nucleotide homeostasis, play unexpected roles, not only in tumorigenesis but also in brain function. Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) appears to have a role in the purinosome formation and, therefore, in the regulation of purine synthesis rate during cell cycle with implications in brain development and tumors. The final product of purine catabolism, uric acid, also plays a recently highlighted novel role. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological manifestations of purine dysmetabolisms, focusing on the newly described/hypothesized roles of cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II, adenosine kinase, adenosine deaminase, HPRT, and xanthine oxidase. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II; adenosine kinase; adenosine deaminase; hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; xanthine oxidase; uric acid cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II; adenosine kinase; adenosine deaminase; hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; xanthine oxidase; uric acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Gil, M.; Camici, M.; Allegrini, S.; Pesi, R.; Petrotto, E.; Tozzi, M.G. Emerging Role of Purine Metabolizing Enzymes in Brain Function and Tumors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3598.

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