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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020462

Influence of Graded Levels of l-Theanine Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Organs Histomorphometry, Blood Chemistry and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
3
Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal 90150, Pakistan
4
Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
5
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

l-theanine is a water-soluble non-proteinous amino acid mainly found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in animals, and especially broilers are limited. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of l-theanine on meat quality, growth performance, immune response, and blood metabolites in broilers. A total of 400 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups using a completely randomized design; C-control, basal diet; 100LT-basal diet + 100 mg l-theanine/kg diet; 200LT-basal diet + 200 mg l-theanine/kg diet; and 300LT-basal diet + 300 mg l-theanine/kg diet. Results revealed that the intermediate level of l-theanine (200 mg/kg diet) showed better results in terms of body weight gain (BWG), feed consumed (FC), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared with the other supplemented groups and the control. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight were higher in all l-theanine levels as compared to those of the control group. Increased weight (p ≤ 0.05) of spleen and bursa were found in group 200LT (200 mg l-theanine/kg diet). Concerning meat color parameters, values for yellowness (b*), and redness (a*) were greater in l-theanine-supplemented groups than the control. Supplementing broiler diet with l-theanine reduced (p = 0.02) total serum cholesterol contents while increased HDL. Further analysis revealed lower relative serum cytokines (IL-2 and INF-γ) and reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus, and IFN-γ and IL-2 in spleen in the treated group. Moreover, supplementation with 200 mg/kg of l-theanine improved antioxidant status in blood by increasing SOD, GSH-Px, and relative CAT levels. It is concluded that the optimum supplementation level of l-theanine is 200 mg/kg of diet because it resulted in improved performance parameters in broilers. However, higher levels of l-theanine (300 mg/kg diet) may have deleterious effects on performance and health of broiler chickens. View Full-Text
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Saeed, M.; Yatao, X.; Hassan, F.-U.; Arain, M.A.; Abd El-Hack, M.E.; Noreldin, A.E.; Sun, C. Influence of Graded Levels of l-Theanine Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Organs Histomorphometry, Blood Chemistry and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 462.

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