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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123843

Lipopolysaccharide-Preconditioned Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Induce M1 Polarization of Macrophages through Extracellular Vesicles

1
Department of Orthodontics, Dankook University Sejong Dental Hospital, Sejong 30107, Korea
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 34824, Korea
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Periodontitis is a common disease characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue destruction of gums. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), derived from the periodontium, have stem cell properties similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells. PDLSCs possess not only the potential to differentiate into other tissues, but also immunomodulatory abilities. Macrophages play a critical role in periodontal disease, but little is known regarding the role of PDLSCs in macrophage modulation during inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDLSCs on the macrophage cell line. While the conditioned media from PDLSCs under normal culture conditions did not affect macrophage polarization, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preconditioned PDLSCs induced significant changes in M1 polarization. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the conditioned media of LPS-preconditioned PDLSCs induced strong M1 polarization of macrophages. Additionally, the M1 polarization was abolished by DNase I treatment of EVs. Therefore, the LPS-stimulated PDLSCs induce M1 polarization of macrophages through EVs, suggesting that the EVs from PDLSCs might be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation in the periodontium. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontal ligament stem cell; macrophage; polarization; extracellular vesicles periodontal ligament stem cell; macrophage; polarization; extracellular vesicles
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Kang, H.; Lee, M.-J.; Park, S.J.; Lee, M.-S. Lipopolysaccharide-Preconditioned Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Induce M1 Polarization of Macrophages through Extracellular Vesicles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3843.

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