Next Article in Journal
Imaging and Molecular Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Relationship of Circulating Irisin with Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders in the Pediatric Population
Previous Article in Journal
Inflammation-Accelerated Senescence and the Cardiovascular System: Mechanisms and Perspectives
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Functional Role of Zinc Finger E Box-Binding Homeobox 2 (Zeb2) in Promoting Cardiac Fibroblast Activation

Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale?

Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Cape Fear Valley Hospital, Fayetteville, NC 28304, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3703;
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health)
Fish and commercially available fish oil preparations are rich sources of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the most important fatty acids in fish oil. Following dietary intake, these fatty acids get incorporated into the cell membrane phospholipids throughout the body, especially in the heart and brain. They play an important role in early brain development during infancy, and have also been shown to be of benefit in dementia, depression, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Early epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. This led to the identification of the cardioprotective role of these marine-derived fatty acids. Many experimental studies and some clinical trials have documented the benefits of fish oil supplementation in decreasing the incidence and progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Possible mechanisms include reduction in triglycerides, alteration in membrane fluidity, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects. Fish oil supplements are generally safe, and the risk of toxicity with methylmercury, an environmental toxin found in fish, is minimal. Current guidelines recommend the consumption of either one to two servings of oily fish per week or daily fish oil supplements (around 1 g of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day) in adults. However, recent large-scale studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Here, we review the different trials that evaluated the role of fish oil in cardiovascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; omega-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); cardiovascular disease fish oil; omega-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); cardiovascular disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Goel, A.; Pothineni, N.V.; Singhal, M.; Paydak, H.; Saldeen, T.; Mehta, J.L. Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3703.

AMA Style

Goel A, Pothineni NV, Singhal M, Paydak H, Saldeen T, Mehta JL. Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(12):3703.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goel, Akshay, Naga Venkata Pothineni, Mayank Singhal, Hakan Paydak, Tom Saldeen, and Jawahar L. Mehta. 2018. "Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 12: 3703.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop