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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103274

Neuroimmunological Implications of Subclinical Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella Enteritidis

1
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Food Immunology and Microbiology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) 2018)
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Abstract

Mounting evidence has indicated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in neuroimmunological responses, but the body’s response to subclinical doses of bacterial endotoxin remains poorly understood. The influence of a low single dose of LPS from Salmonella Enteritidis, which does not result in any clinical symptoms of intoxication (subclinical lipopolysaccharide), on selected cells and signal molecules of the neuroimmune system was tested. Five juvenile crossbred female pigs were intravenously injected with LPS from S. Enteritidis (5 μg/kg body weight (b.w.)), while five pigs from the control group received sodium chloride in the same way. Our data demonstrated that subclinical LPS from S. Enteritidis increased levels of dopamine in the brain and neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and active intestinal peptide (VIP) in the cervical lymph nodes with serum hyperhaptoglobinaemia and reduction of plasma CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes seven days after lipopolysaccharide administration. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes from the cervical lymph node and serum interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α showed no significant differences between the control and lipopolysaccharide groups. Subclinical lipopolysaccharide from S. Enteritidis can affect cells and signal molecules of the neuroimmune system. The presence of subclinical lipopolysaccharide from S. Enteritidis is associated with unknown prolonged consequences and may require eradication and a deeper search into the asymptomatic carrier state of Salmonella spp. View Full-Text
Keywords: LPS from S. Enteritidis; neuropeptides; dopamine; CD4 T-lymphocytes; CD8 T-lymphocytes; haptoglobin; cytokines; cervical lymph nodes; prefrontal cortex; substantia nigra LPS from S. Enteritidis; neuropeptides; dopamine; CD4 T-lymphocytes; CD8 T-lymphocytes; haptoglobin; cytokines; cervical lymph nodes; prefrontal cortex; substantia nigra
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mikołajczyk, A.; Złotkowska, D. Neuroimmunological Implications of Subclinical Lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella Enteritidis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3274.

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